Defining Strategy And What It Means Within An Organization

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Defining strategy and what it means within an organisation is no easy task. It can cause confusion and difficulty within organisations, and this must be addressed. While there is no one set definition for strategy, many theorists have attempted to provide one. Examples of these include Alfred Chandler (1962), who defined strategy as “determination of the basic long-term goals and objectives of an enterprise and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation of resources necessary for carrying out these goals”. The problem of defining strategy may be within defining the definition itself. George Steiner, a professor of management and one of the founders of The California Management Review, states that strategy entered the management literature as a way of referring to what one did to counter a competitor’s actual or predicted moves (Nickols, 2012). While there can be confusion on the definition, there are three distinct levels of strategy (Johnson, Whittington, & Scholes, 2011, p. 7). The first of these, the corporate level, involves an overall scope of the organisation and how value is added to the organisation as a whole. The second, at a business level, concerns how individual businesses should compete within their particular market, while an operational level looks at how various components of the organisation assist in delivering at both a corporate and business level. Within these three levels there are three branches of strategy (Johnson et al., 2011, p. 11).
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