Definition Of The Politeness Theory

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1.4. Theoretical Framework 1.4.1. Definition of the politeness theory. Watts (2003) explains, “Politeness is not something we are born with, but something we have to learn and be socialized into” (p. 9). Each linguist defines politeness in a different way. Cobley (2010) says that politeness is a way of showing consideration and social position in language. Politeness includes words that show respect such as 'please '. He indicates, “The phenomenon has been the object of the considerable scrutiny in pragmatics” (p. 290). In addition, Yule (2006) describes politeness as “showing awareness of and consideration for another person 's face” (p. 119). Huang (2014) defines it as any behavior that maintains his or her face through an interaction. Brown (1987) threw light on different aspects of behavior such as manners, courtesy, tact, etc...(p. 142). On the other hand, Thomas (1995) sees politeness as a real world goal, which means that politeness happens to be only a desire to be pleasant to others. In his point of view, politeness should not be included within pragmatics, because linguists do not have access to the speakers ' intentions, they only hear what the speakers say and see how the hearers react (p. 150). Pinker (2007) indicates that politeness is not an etiquette to learn, but to the countless ways that can confuse their listeners (p. 380). Hence, one can define politeness in many ways, but what is surely common between them is that
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