Definitions And Classifications Of Language Learning Strategies Essay

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Literature Review

Definitions and Classifications of Language Learning Strategies “Strategy”, from the ancient Greek term strategia, refers to generalship or the art of war. In a more specific sense, strategy entails the optimal management of troops, ships or aircraft in a planned campaign. “Tactics” is different but related to strategies, which are tools to achieve the success of strategies. Moreover, the two expressions share some basic concepts: planning, competition, conscious manipulation and movement toward a goal. In nonmilitary settings, the concept of strategy has been applied to the non-adversarial situations, where it has come to mean a plan, step or an action is taken for achieving a specific objective (Oxford, 1990). Oxford (1990) stated 第二期(2007 年 3 月) 238 that strategies are particularly important for language learning “because they are tools for active, self-directed involvement, which is essential for developing communicative competence” (p.1). Because of its significance, learning strategies have been extensively employed in the educational field. In defining the language learning strategy, “different researchers use different terms and different concepts” (Oxford & Crookall, 1989, p.414); therefore, a great number of researchers have formulated their own definitions which will be discussed in the followings. Schemeck (1988) stated, strategy is “the implementation of a set of procedures (tactics) for accomplishing something” and learning strategy is “a
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