Dehydration Lab Report

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Hydration plays a fundamental role in body function. As such, fluid intake and excretion are tightly regulated by various heterogeneous body mechanisms that work together to maintain a homeostatic fluid balance. Fluid and solute balance affects every organ system in the body, especially, the cardiovascular system, the nervous system, the genitourinary system, and the various fluid compartments such as the interstitial and intracellular spaces. Dehydration occurs when there is an extracellular fluid volume deficit and can originate from a variety of diverse causes. It can be the result of insufficient fluid intake, excess fluid loss, or a combination of the two. Common causes of excessive fluid loss that lead to dehydration include unmonitored…show more content…
These mechanisms include activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which elicits systemic vasoconstriction (via catecholamine binding of α1 receptors) in an attempt to increase peripheral vascular resistance (PVR), and increases heart rate (via catecholamines binding to β1 receptors) in an attempt to increase CO, both of which are fundamental components of the blood pressure equation. This is done to maintain an adequate perfusion pressure in order to oxygenate the tissues and prevent hypoxic cell injury. If hypovolemia is present, the body will first shunt the blood away from less critical organs such as the GI tract in order to maintain perfusion of critical organs such as the brain, the heart system, and the kidneys. If hypovolemia and tissue hypoperfusion are severe enough, major organ damage will occur as a result of hypoxia (Copstead & Banasik, 2013). This patient experienced clear signs of systemic tissue hypoperfusion secondary to severe hypovolemia as evidenced by his syncopal episode (cerebral hypoperfusion), his persistent pressure-like chest pain (myocardial ischemia), and his acute renal failure (renal hypoperfusion). The fact that these critical organs were affected indicates just how severe his state of hypovolemia, hypotension, and hypoperfusion
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