Democracy in Pakistan

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Pakistan had no worthwhile civil society and hardly any middle class in 1947 due to rampant illiteracy and absence of an independent media. The masses were poor, the country was described an “economic desert” and there was an unprecedented influx of refugees. The country lacked the necessary infrastructure and institutions. The capability to develop them was lacking. The external and internal threats to the security of the country turned it into a security state. Weak political leadership created space for civil-military bureaucracy. This led to the cut-off periods in democratic governance, which was derailed thrice in 1958, 1977 and 1999. At present, the
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These areas were neglected by the British being closer to the borders. It was considered safer to invest in central India which was beyond the reach of enemy air force. The affluent class in Pakistan was mostly Hindus and Sikhs and they transferred their wealth to India. Thus, at the time of its birth, Pakistan was virtually an “economic desert”13 and the masses were abysmally poor. There was “an acute famine of commodities of every day use.”14 The authorities, who were administering the country, were more interested in the procurement of goods and development of the country rather than promoting the cause of democratic governance. Pakistan’s low literacy, bad infrastructure, and instability made it difficult to take advantage of what is commonly called “globalization”. It did not produce much to offer in the exports market except low value primary goods, its work-force was not educated, and the government controlled trade and investment suffered for political reasons, partly due to mutually constrained relations with neighbouring India.
Persisting Problems

Quasi-Federalism and Conflict between Eastern and Western Wings
One of the main bottlenecks in the constitutional development in Pakistan was that its two wings were separated by about 1000 miles of hostile territory. The eastern wing consisted of one province but was more
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