Depression And Anxiety And Depression

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Although anxiety and depression may seem to be separate categories of symptoms, as outlined in the DSM-5 (APA, 2013), and therefore different, many theorists posit that there is an underlying set of factors for both (Clark, Steer & Beck, 1994, Clark & Watson, 1991). Such commonalities between the diagnoses may explain the common comorbidity (Wittchen, Zhao, Kessler, & Eaton, 1994). The high comorbidity between anxiety and mood disorders exacerbates the debate on the distinguish ability of the constructs (Andrews, 1996).
One central component of anxiety and depression is the anticipation of negative future outcomes (Miranda, & Mennin, 2007). This has been found across a wide age range, from adolescents to adults (Kagan, MacLeod, & Pote, 2004). However, depression and anxiety differ in that those with higher depression scores tend to also anticipate a low chance of positive future outcomes (MacLeod, Tata, Kentish, & Jacobsen, 1997). Not only do individuals with depression differ from anxious individuals with regards to low anticipation of positive outcomes, they also differ from non depressed individuals in that they are more likely to hold such pessimistic beliefs about the future (Anderson, 1990). This supports the tripartite model (Clark & Watson, 1991) of high anticipation of negative outcomes, and low anticipation of positive outcomes.
Tripartite model
The tripartite model of depression (Clark & Watson, 1991) states that the differences in anxiety and depression can be

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