The diagnosis of Major depressive disorder and Borderline personality disorder (BPD) are entirely accurate, as Diana’s behaviour epitomizes the characteristics and diagnostic features of both disorders. As outlined in the DSM-5, Diana exemplifies symptoms warranting a diagnosis of major depressive disorder, as she displays the presence of five or more specified symptoms while having no prior history of mania. Diana exhibits the diagnostically required symptoms of frequent depressed mood, diminished interest in normal activities, and recurring suicidal thoughts/attempts, resulting in considerable distress and impairment. (APA, 2013, p. 160-161). In addition to fitting the diagnostic criteria, Diana demonstrates marked deficits in areas of functioning. Most strikingly Diana typifies emotional symptoms common in unipolar depression including prolonged and severe unhappiness, crying spells, and a general sense of hopelessness. Diana also displays
Based on the DSM-V (2013) diagnostic criteria Keisha experiences Persistent Depressive Disorder 300.4 (F34.1), recurrent, moderate, with early onset. The client experiences the following symptoms: depressed mood for most of the day, for more days than not, as indicated by either subjective accounts (e.g., feels sad, worthless and hopeless) or observation by others (e.g. appears sad, cries), for at least one year (she is an adolescent). In addition, while depressed, there is a presence of the following symptoms: the client experiences poor appetite, she is eating one or two meals per day and lost ten pounds in one year. Keisha also experiences hypersomnia nearly every day by sleeping twelve or more hours per night. The client reports low energy/fatigue very often, even though she is sleeping well during the night. During the one year period of disturbance, the individual has never been without the symptoms in criteria A and B for more than two months at a time. In addition, the criteria for a major depressive disorder has been continuously present for one year. There has never been a manic episode or a hypomanic episode, and criteria have never been met for cyclothymic disorder. Furthermore, the disturbance is not better explained by a persistent schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, delusional disorder, or other specified or
Bipolar Disorder effect a vast majority of society; unfortunately, a large number of people are unaware that they are Bipolar. They simple think that it is just the ups and downs of everyday life. There is also a number of people who have been misdiagnosed with Bipolar Disorder who are not and are being treat for a disease they do not have. Most likely they have some other disorder but the doctor did not take the time to accurately diagnose their patient. For instance, my grandmother on my father’s side has been diagnosed with Bipolar. Previous to this research paper the only knowledge I had of Bipolar was that Bipolar patients suffer from horrible mood swings. So I decided to do my research on Bipolar so I could understand my grandmother better. Shockingly, I came to the conclusion that there is a good chance my grandmother has been misdiagnosed.
Rationale: Jennifer has been presenting with symptoms for unspecified amount of time. Jennifer meets six of the criteria for symptoms being present during the same 2-week period and represents a change from previous functioning. Jennifer is depressed most of the day, nearly every day, has diminished interest in all or almost all activities most of the days, nearly every day, has fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished ability to think or concentrate, is having recurrent thoughts of death, recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan. The symptoms have cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, and other functioning areas. There is no know substance or medical condition and occurrence is not better explained by Schizophrenia Spectrum or Psychotic Disorders. Jennifer has never had a manic episode or a hypomanic episode. Possible family history of depression - mother.
Furthermore, Monica is also diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 (DSM), Bipolar Disorder is characterized as a mood disorder consisting of major depressive and manic episodes (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). One must display at least 5 of the following symptoms of a major depressive episode within a 2-week period which must include a depressed mood most of the day or a diminished interest or pleasure in daily activities (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The manic episode must persist for one week in which the individual displays an irritable or euphoric mood (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Based
Helen is a non drug user that repetitively goes through several week periods of racing thoughts, abnormal energetic disposition, lack of normal eating or sleeping, talking quickly, and putting herself in potential dangerous situations. This period can be described as a Manic or Hypomanic episode. Later, she enters to what qualifies as a Major Depressive Episode. She describes it as a period that may last
Bipolar disorder has been gaining more and more attention over the last few years. With shootings on the rise, or at least the publicity of them, people are often pointing their fingers at mental diseases including bipolar disorder. An ongoing issue regarding mental illnesses, however, is the population has failed to fully understand what they truly are, the symptoms, and how to treat them.
After looking at all the symptoms and emotional set backs it is concluded that Jessica as Major Depression Disorder. I came to this diagnosis because of her emotional and physical changes. Jessica is no longer excited about life. She is withdrawn from all the things that she used to be interested. Her whole disposition has changed she feels worthless, like life has little to offer her or she just can not make the cut feeling sad and moody most of the time. The only difficulties with coming to this conclusion is she may also have a alcohol and substance abuse problem, but by her late activity of staying in bed and not wanting to be involved with anyone but herself she as also withdrawn from drinking and partying.
Ellen Waters meets criteria for a diagnosis of Bipolar II Disorder (296.89), current episode depressed with atypical features, mild severity. There are several things in her case that make this diagnosis clear. She reports chronic depression throughout her life, but she also describes “highs” consisting of elevated mood lasting for several months at a time during which she functions on little sleep and gets a lot done, runs up high telephones bills talking to people, and experiences racing thoughts. Additionally, she reports that her friends have obviously concerned about her abrupt changes of behavior from her depressive norm, and would often tell her that she needed to slow down or calm down. All of these are consistent with hypomania and she lacks some of the hallmarks of mania—she is still able to function at work and socially for the most part, she has not needed to be hospitalized as a result of her “highs” and she has not experienced any psychosis—thus ruling out a Bipolar I diagnosis. She is currently experiencing a depressed mood and panic attacks, which is the reason why she has been referred for treatment. She states that she was depressed for most of the month prior to this visit.
Famous celebrities such as Demi Lovato, Catherine Zeta-Jones, Mel Gibson and Jim Carrey are proof that bipolar I disorder can be treated and still have a full and productive life. Like any other diseases such as heart disease or diabetes, bipolar I disorder is a long-term disorder that must be carefully managed throughout one’s life. Some psychotherapies can help with the treatment of bipolar I disorder with manic psychotic features such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal and family therapies, and psycho-education. The CBT is used to identify negative thoughts and behaviors and learn to modify them to create a positive change. Interpersonal and family therapies help to manage the patient’s symptoms and needs that improve relationships and communications. Lastly, psycho-education which can be used to educate people with bipolar disorder as well as their family members to help identify the signs of mood swings before they happen. Since bipolar I disorder with manic psychotic feature is essentially a long-term condition, it is recommended that the client remains in family session therapy for as long as the client is receiving medications. Therefore, since there is no cure for bipolar I disorder, a thorough investigation of the client’s symptoms and family history along with the combination of medication and psychotherapy can lead to successful treatment and management of the
Currently effecting between 2-4% of the overall population and as one of the leading causes of homelessness, suicide, and hospitalization, bipolar disorder is yet, still one of the most perplexing, as well as the most misunderstood mental disorders out there. With this particular disorder, the complexity arises given one’s predisposition, diversity, and non-specific range of hazards for said disorder; thusly, making a cure, or at best, prevention, difficult, if not impossible, if not for appropriate early intervention. Bipolar not only puts a strain on the economic condition of our country, but on the individual, as well as society as a whole; given, its propensity to bring about financial difficulties, employment difficulties, and poor self-esteem and this is simply three examples, out of quite possible a largely finite numeral of disparities realized within the afflicted, as well as the overall populace. Nothing left of what we deem normal will be left untainted, and with limited governmental funding and a lack of knowledge, mankind’s naïve, uncaring nature will only bring about less than desirable responses to treatment, medicinally or otherwise; given, the disorder is far more difficult to treat later in life. With the proximal factors of which occur within one 's own environment, such as acute
Helen recurrent mood episodes and suicidal ideation needs to be addressed immediately. Her moods episodes
There is no indication she has had a manic or hypomanic episode. Her depression may be complicated by grief due to her father’s death one year ago. Her symptoms seem to get worse after his passing.
This paper introduces a 35-year-old female who is exhibiting signs of sadness, lack of interest in daily activities and suicidal tendencies. She has no interest in hobbies, which have been very important to her in the past. Her lack of ambition and her suicidal tendencies are causing great concern for her family members. She is also exhibiting signs of hypersomnia, which will put her in dangerous situations if left untreated. The family has great concern about her leaving the hospital at this time, fearing that she may be a danger to herself. A treatment plan and ethical considerations will be discussed.