Describe and evaluate one or more biological explanations of schizophrenia

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Describe and evaluate one or more biological explanations of schizophrenia
Research has shown that schizophrenia is heredity and can runs in families. This suggests that genes play a significant role. The closer the genetic relationship the more likely the people are to share the disorder. Evidence from family studies by Gottesman showed that when bothparent are schizophrenic then there is a 46% chance of the child getting it, however, if only one parent had it, it dropped to 17%. This suggests that a genetic factor is involved.
MZ twins share 100% of their genes; DZ twins share 50% of their genes. If genes are a factor we would expect more identical twins to share the disorder than non-identical. Gottesman also looked at twin
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Recent research has suggested that genetic factors affect the hard wiring of the brain. The research focused on the brain biochemistry (neurotransmitters). Although there have been many neurotransmitters associated with schizophrenia, Dopamine seems to be the most important. The dopamine hypothesis says that schizophrenia is caused by an increased reaction to dopamine in the brain. This could be because there is too much of the hormone dopamine in the brain, or conversely because there is an abnormally high number of dopamine receptors in the brain. This model says the excess sensitivity to dopamine results in the brain, causes the symptoms of schizophrenia.
Evidence comes from the fact that amphetamines increase the amounts of dopamine large doses of amphetamines given to people with no history of the disorder produced behaviour which is very similar to paranoid schizophrenia. Small doses given to people already suffering from the disorder tend to worsen their symptoms. L-dopa is a drug used to treat Parkinson 's disease it acts by increasing dopamine levels; it can also produce symptoms of schizophrenia in previously unaffected individuals, although not all patients developed these side effects. Main antipsychotic drugs such as Phenothiazine’s block the dopamine receptor cells and reduce symptoms
However Phenothiazine’s do not work for everyone diagnosed with schizophrenia, this suggests something else must cause schizophrenia as well otherwise
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