Genetics can cause differences in brain chemistry and biochemistry may be important in the development and maintenance of schizophrenia. The dopamine
Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a life-long disorder that affects about one percent of the population (Mueser & McGurk, 2004). The cause of this mental illness is still unclear. Studies have suggested that Schizophrenia does not arise from one factor but from a combination of genetic, environmental, and social factors (Liddle, 1987). People diagnosed with Schizophrenia struggle to deal with a multitude of symptoms that make it difficult to function (Mueser & McGurk, 2004). Antipsychotic medications are a popular treatment of the symptoms of Schizophrenia (Mueser & McGurk, 2004). Research is constantly being done to develop these medications to enhance the quality of life of those diagnosed with Schizophrenia.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter known to be involved in regulating mood and behaviour, amongst other things. Schizophrenia is associated with an overactivity of dopamine in the brain, and this may be associated with the delusions and hallucinations that are a feature of this disease.
Outline and evaluate one or more biological explanations of schizophrenia (8 marks AO1/16 marks AO1)
There are two main biological theories which explain the assumed causes of schizophrenia: Genetic and Dopamine Hypothesis. Research by Mikaywa et al has found that there must be a genetic explanation of schizophrenia due to the fact that concordance rates for environmental causes are not 100%. Also Mikaywa noticed that schizophrenia
Describe and evaluate biological explanations of schizophrenia (24 marks) Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterized by distorted thinking, impaired emotional responses, poor interpersonal skills and a distortion of reality. It is the most common of psychotic disorders that, in most countries around the world, affects around 1 per cent of the population. In terms of explanations for the disorder, two central types of explanations arise – psychological explanations and biological explanations. Whereas psychological explanations tend to focus on cognitive, emotional and environmental factors that may cause the disorder, biological explanations tend to focus on genetic, biochemical and neuro-anatomical factors as the cause of the
Research by Johnstone in 1994, explained the biological approach of interventions, explanation and treating of schizophrenia patients (Hansell & Damour, 2005). In studies of Fisher in 2001, discoveries that the brain had more dopamine receptors know as B_2 receptors in a person suffering from schizophrenia, than a non-suffer (Hansell & Damour, 2005). Biological findings of schizophrenia suggest that a genetic factor was hereditary, but not conclusive because the element of environment does make a difference (Hansell & Damour, 2005).
Stress that is caused by a traumatic event or family situations may be a trigger, which can cause this disorder to surface in those who possess a genetic predisposition. Another trigger that may play a major part is an imbalance of dopamine and serotonin, which are located in the brain. The behavioral patterns that are associated with schizophrenia are thought to result from an over activity of dopamine within certain areas of the brain. The areas of the brain that are affected by this disorder are the forebrain, hindbrain, and limbic system (The Lundbeck Institute, 2002-2005).
Schizophrenia is a complex and highly debilitating mental illness that we are currently unable to treat in any way that guarantees success or return to previous function. It affects around 1% of the population and is associated with a thirteen-fold increase in the likelihood of suicide, so its effective control is paramount (Gogos et al., 2015). There have been several hypotheses as to the cause of schizophrenia. Many link genetic and environmental factors, and dysregulations of neurotransmitters dopamine, glutamate, and serotonin (Egbujo, Sinclair, & Hahn, 2016). The dopamine hypothesis currently suggests that hyperactive dopamine transmission in the basal ganglia leads to psychosis and underactive dopamine transmission in the prefrontal
The major support and refutation of the dopamine hypothesis has come from the examination of dopamine receptors in these regions of the brain. There are two main types of dopamine receptors, D1 and D2. However, within the category of D2 receptors, there are three subtypes, D2, D3, and D4. (5) Through PET scan analysis of dopamine usage in the brain and post-mordum molecular analysis of brain tissue, researcher were able to determine relative levels of dopamine receptors in patients with schizophrenia compared to non-schizophrenics. Overall analysis of dopamine
The vast majority of medications currently in the marketplace or under development to treat schizophrenia/psychosis focus on dopamine in one way or another. Most of the medications that are currently used to treat this condition affect dopamine in a direct way. These drugs specifically target this substance because historically, psychosis has been linked to unusually high levels of dopamine in the part of the brain that is known as the stratum (Nauert, 2010). Moreover, there is a fair amount of research that indicates there is a direct correlation between levels of glutamate, which is another substance the brain produces and is found in the hippocampus, and dopamine in individuals who eventually develop schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia´s Cognitive symptoms include troubles with focusing or paying attention, using information immediately after learning it, understanding information and using it to make decisions (Meltzer, The Role of Serotonin in Schizophrenia, 2000). Many areas of the brain, along with chemicals are affected in a schizophrenic patient. The structure along with
VII. Recent scientific research suggests that it may be possible to prevent many cases of schizophrenia.
The Dopamine and Glutamate Hypothesis and other Influencing Factors in the cause of Schizophrenia Michele P. Bryant Antelope Valley College Abstract Schizophrenia is a Psychological disorder that impacts the person 's ability to process thoughts, emotions and action. Schizophrenia symptoms are categorized as cognitive, positive and negative symptoms. There has yet
There are many causes to Schizophrenia. Many causes are genetics, brain chemistry and structure, and the environment of a human being. Genetically Schizophrenia can run through a family and can be passed on generations at a time. “Individuals with a first degree relative (parent or sibling) who