Design Of An Integrated Circuit

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1.1 Overview
Nowadays it is impossible to imagine any device where microelectronics is not present, from personal computers through home appliances, modern society relies on the performance of integrated circuits. It is so, that microelectronics advent has opened doors to new horizons where integrated circuits have played an important role from the very beginning of their creation since the late 1950s, when Jack St. Clair Kilby, a Texas Instruments Engineer, decided to change the future, conceiving the first integrated circuit, where the components, passive as well as active, were placed over a piece of semi-conductive material (Germanium piece) that was half the size of a paper clip. The success of this element (called chip due to its small size) containing a few transistors, resistors, and capacitors, led to the Physics Nobel Prize for its inventor in 2000.
The design of an integrated circuit involves a development plan, where its functional characteristics and performance will define the elaboration of the logic circuit diagram. Once the diagram is finished, a series of simulations are executed to test the operation of the designed circuit; if no issues are encountered, a massive production plan is implemented.
This manufacturing process has allowed the miniaturization of most of the devices used daily, translating to lower production costs. The typical manufacturing process involves the interconnection of the integrated circuit chips to the
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