Hamar illustrates this through family tree studies and the X chromosome. Where, rates of homosexuality in maternally related males were shown in family trees of male sexual orientation compared to the insignificant rates in paternal relatives. Which brought up the chances of the implication in the X chromosome. As males have an X and a Y sex chromosome, a trait inherited from the mother’s side (X chromosome) might be influenced by a gene on one of her X chromosomes. Moreover, there’s been further experiments that demonstrated the effect of X chromosome, Xq28, being shared by a number of gay brothers. (Simon LeVay and Dean H. Hamar, 1994) Conversely, we should question about the confounding variables that can play a role in the biological aspect. According to paper on, “Sexual Orientation of Adult Sons of Gay Fathers,” there are at least three possible environmental transmission routes. Firstly, children may pick up their sexual orientations by imitating their parents. By this concept, a child may acquire the desired love preferred by his same-sex parent. Secondly, when trying to remove the associations of homosexuality to those who are inclined to become homosexual, it rather increases the rate of homosexuality. However, this point is only an opinion in journals concerning this issue and not from academic journals. And
The article dives into the 'gay gene’; a gene where individuals had hoped that would be the answer to peoples orientation. While scientists have found some new information regarding chromosomes and genetics, there still is no simple answer that reassures anyone that there is a single 'gay gene ' that defines their orientation.
A pattern emerges where the scholarly literature exploring this topic is largely focused on males. Reason being is that it appears that males are the sex who are predominantly homosexual in their orientation (LeVay & Baldwin, 2012). However, the sensitivity within the discourse of sexual orientation arises when it is debated upon whether one 's sexual preference is innate at birth, hence a force of nature or biology, or if it is a result of culture, nurture or environmental factors (Emmanuele et al., 2010). Furthermore, an experimental design will be proposed to further examine this topic. Comparing the three chosen studies, it is evident that a biological and endocrinological perspective does account for sexual orientation (Kraemer et al., 2006; Manning et al., 2007; Miller et al., 2008). Of the studies that currently exist on this topic, data shows that prenatal testosterone levels are indicative of sexual orientation (Kraemer et al., 2006; Manning et al., 2007; Miller et al., 2008). This paper addresses a topic that is relevant in today 's society; a topic that has, for the most part, been written off as having any scientific roots (Emmanuele et al., 2010). This paper counters that belief and in reading this essay, it will be evident that biology and endocrinology have a much stronger influence on sexual orientation than previously thought.
A highly debated issue concerning homosexuality is whether sexual-orientation is biologically determined or if it is a socially learned behavior. One case study done about this topic gathered that “the homosexual desire seems in most cases to be implanted in those who develop an unusually strong attachment for one parent” (Cory 1951:67). This seems to suggest that homosexuality can be influenced by family structure or other sociological elements. On the other side of this argument, there is the belief that people are born either gay or straight. Even though there is no scientific or genetic evidence to prove this, there have been many studies done and most homosexuals interviewed take this view-point. McIntosh states, “[homosexuality] is still commonly seen as a condition characterizing certain persons in the way that birthplace or deformity might characterize them” (1968:182). To support their cause and to fight for acceptance in society, it would be beneficial to convince people that sexual orientation is biologically determined. “Research indicates that people who believe that homosexuality is a choice are more likely to condemn it than are those who believe gays and lesbians are born that way”
He contradicted the argument that homosexual behaviour is related to genetic, hormonal or biological disorder. To abolish these views, the author mentions that ‘no school of medicine, medical journal or professional organization has ever recognized such claims (p. 2) - at least at the time he wrote the article in 1994.
It is a fair assumption to say that America is approaching a new age in understanding and accepting the many variations of human sexual orientation. More same-sex couples have fostered children than ever before in our nation 's history. Institutions such as military and professional sports have (slowly but surely) began to accept openly gay members. Most importantly, a recent amendment to the Marriage Act of 1961 now defines marriage as a union of two people; an amendment which removed the prohibition of same-sex marriages. These landmarks in the progression of social awareness surrounding sexual orientation are derivative of scientific findings disputing the "choice" theory. As outlined in Simon LeVay 's book, Gay, Straight, and the Reason Why, the result of someone 's sexual orientation "emerges from the prenatal sexual differentiation of the brain" (LeVay 2011: 271) What LeVay means in this context is, "whether a person ends up gay or straight depends in large part on how this process of biological differentiation goes forward, with the lead actors being genes, sex hormones, and the brain systems" (LeVay 2011: 271). Much research, proven and theoretical, has been done on the concept of what makes people gay. Many factors surrounding socialization in regards to sexual orientation have undergone extensive scientific scrutiny (LeVay 2011: 77). Although there is evidence that suggests social and environmental elements play a role in sexual orientation, it is
A psychologist at Northwestern University named J. Michael Bailey conducted an experiment on families with at least a pair of gay brothers. This experiment was able to recruit 409 pairs of gay brothers and to the surprise of Bailey and his team it found that there were linkages in two parts of the DNA linking to sexuality (Servick NP). This is one study that shows strong evidence leaning towards the argument that being gay is not by choice but is genetically predetermined. While discrimination towards homosexuals isn’t nearly as severe and blatantly open like it was towards the African American community before the Civil Rights Movement is it not the same issue. Discrimination towards a group of people due to a factor in which they cannot control. This type of discrimination goes against the core American message of life,
Scientists and researchers are continuously revealing data about genetic homosexuality; the question is, are these studies reliable and conclusive? Copious studies have been conducted and have continued to be indecisive as to discovering a gene that develops homosexuality. Little bits of information have sprung up here and there, but there is no way to prove that being homosexual, bisexual, or even heterosexual for that matter is genetic. “Simon LeVay, who self-identifies as gay, said: ‘It's important to stress what I didn't find. I did not prove that homosexuality is genetic, or find a genetic cause for being gay. I didn't show that gay men are born that way, the most common mistake people make in interpreting my work’” (Price). Homosexual individuals themselves even give in to the fact that their homosexuality is an adaptation, not an inheritance. A scientific study that is valid and repeatable is what is considered acceptable in the science community, and tests taken over genetic homosexuality have been neither valid nor repeatable. It only makes sense that there is not a “gay gene,” as some individuals specify
Over the years there has been many debates and experiments to try to come to the conclusion of whether sexual orientaion is biologically based or choice. Sexual orientation is a pattern of emotional, romantic, or sexual attractions to men, women or both sexes. Sexual orientation is defined in terms of relationships with others since their identity is based off of their attractions. Sexual orientation can be noted through behaviors such as holding hands or kissing, sharing goals and values, mutual support, and ongoing commitments. Sexual orientation can be broken down into three categories heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual. While this break down may seem very black and white, there are
Homosexuality has been around for centuries, maybe even since the beginning of human existence. Many individuals question why some people are gay and why others are not. Those that question humanity ask what exactly makes a person become attracted to the same sex and whether or not it is nature or nurture. There are three points to argue that homosexuality is natural and not by choice. Hormonal changes during pregnancy can alter the unborn child’s sexual preference even before delivery. Some professionals believe brain physicality also has a role to play in homosexuality. With a look even further into the brain, DNA was also found to potentially play a factor in sexual orientation due to the alteration in epi-markers which result in homosexuality.
The debate of whether to pass the bills and policies that promote equal treatment of lesbians, gay, bisexual, transgender, and the queer (LGBTQ) community has been trending across nations. People refer to fundamental human rights like the freedom of speech and association, liberty, and equal treatment in court as civil rights, because they are fundamental rights that each and every citizen should not be denied on the basis of their sex, race, or religious belief. Though it has been proven that homosexuality – the sexual desire for those of the same sex as oneself – has existed since humans have begun documenting human history, the framers of the Constitution did not include the unconstitutionality of discrimination against citizens on the basis of sexual preference, thus, making this discrimination entirely legal. It is, therefore, important to consider the varying views on this issue with an aim of constructing a genuine proposition to the policy makers.
I chose this topic because there is an issue of homophobia around the world. I find it interesting as to why people are homosexual, and if there is a gene responsible for this or if it can be developed later in
There are many controversies surrounding today's world, such as abortion, animal testing, and social reform issues. It seems that no one can come to a common agreement on the legitimacy of these topics. Personal characteristics, such as upbringing, culture, religion and ethnicity, all play a role in determining one's feelings on a given controversial issue. However, one of the most protested and discussed issues in current political debate is same-sex marriage. There is no right or wrong answer to this question, only hard pressed arguments expressing speculation regarding supposed outcomes, benefits and possible tribulations that would come along with the endorsement of gay marriage. Such ideas are shown
One global issue that impacts the world is origins of sexual identity. People being born gay or it being a choice is a frequently asked question. Although there is no solid evidence of gay biological genes, it is highly uncommon for someone to choose their sexual orientation. This topic is important to me because I am a part of the LGBT community and GSA. I stand up for our rights and dislike the judgement towards the LGBT community. People are born gay, it cannot be changed through any type of therapy or religious camp, and people shouldn’t be judge by it.
Homosexuality has become an important issue in our community creating much controversy. The liberal citizens of our country congratulate those who have made the hard decision to “come out.” The decision to be openly homosexual is hard for some because of the rare acceptance that they receive. Society has made it so hard for homosexuals to be accepted, given the discrimination and hate crimes against them. The rights that have been taken from homosexuals, such as marriage, have led to a quest for knowledge on the question of whether homosexuality is biological or simply a choice. Researchers and scientists have been working diligently to find the answer to this question. If homosexuality is proven to be biological, many doors could open