Developing Technologies For Fossil Fuel

1100 Words Jan 23rd, 2016 5 Pages
ESL Course:
Bioenergy from microalgae
Introduction:
The past two decades biofuels hold much promise in alleviating climate change, greenhouse effect and in finite amount. Their combustion produces gaseous products: carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) that increase the amount of solar heat trapped within the planet׳s atmosphere (T.R. Karl, 2003). It has also been predicted that the oil reserves may run out by 2050 (Harun et al., 2010). First generation bioethanol seemed to be alternative for fossil fuel. However, production of bioethanol from food crops leads to impact on food supplies, as well as rainforest and arable land. It leads to increased deforestation and food vs fuel debate (Cassman and Liska, 2007 and Fargione et al., 2008). Therefore, it is necessary to develop technologies for the efficient production of ethanol from inedible biomass. As a result, attention turned into second generation bioethanol produced from lignocellulose feedstocks such as sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, rice straw switch grass and wood ( Daroch and Mos, 2011 and Hattori and Morita, 2010). So far biochemical conversion of these feedstocks to ethanol did not live up to the expectations. (Although lignocellulosic biomass is inedible, the high content of lignin existence hinders saccharification from lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels. Therefore various pretreatment methods have been applied for efficient hydrolysis). Despite years of research it still remains an area for…
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