In Encountering Development by Arturo Escobar, Escobar critiques the Development Project, a multi pronged initiative of socioeconomic management of the Third World, specifically Latin America, Asia, and Africa, via the First World powers, in question specifically the United States. The critique entails how industrialization and modernization of the Third World could be seen as the mode through which modernization could be achieved and this was enabled by bureaucratic entities, like the World Bank, whom subjected Third World economies to a heavy handed management via the modernization process which denied autonomy for Third World self sufficiency. The Development process thus denied any legitimate conceptualization of how to properly develop economic prosperity. The rapid “consolidation of power” into the hands of the capitalist First World Elite created a paradigm through which the support of cyclical poverty ensured a need for industrialization in order to fix defunct socioeconomic issues. By creating bureaucratic agencies, like the World Bank, which provided specific subscriptor projects, like DRI, allowed for the First World entities to to create and sustain an ongoing unequal distribution of power between the Global North and the Global South.
Measurable changes in society, and the policies that drive them, spring from abstract strains of thought that develop over time. This is the case with many paradigms of development theory, such as that of Modernization Theory. Modernization theory is closely associated with modernity, a concept that is particularly difficult to define in concrete terms; however, there are several points that help one grasp its complexity. Giddens (1990) sees modernity as particular modes of social life that reflect 17th century European values of progress and enlightenment thinking. As well, one can view modernization as a continuous project, meant to liberate countries from their traditional ‘backward’ way of life and become more aligned with Western ideals (Cooper 2005). Modernization became a popular theory due to its roots in the sociological theory behind modernity and capitalism, as well as the perpetuation of its necessity by developmental economists. Modernization theory was considered an effective method for development due to the assumption that its success domestically, as shown by the Tennessee Valley Authority in the 1930’s, would be just as effective on foreign nations (Ekbladh 2002). Despite this, there are more recent criticisms that contest the efficacy of modernization in current development discourse regarding non-economic barriers to development and the theory’s inherent euro-centric underpinnings. The first section of this paper discusses Max Weber’s spirit
The United States today is known as an industrialized nation. This means that we have a high standard of living. However, there are many countries that do not have a high standard of living and they are called developing nations. Many things could keep them from becoming a developed nation such as no international trade, lack of factories, and a lack of tariffs.
There are many factors that determine whether a country is developed or is developing, but the primary factor is GDP (gross domestic product) per capita. GDP is a measure of the total output of the country divided by the number of people
Throughout the world countries are often characterized as being developed or developing. Two countries that are examples of being developed and developing are the United States and India. This classification of countries is often based on their economic status. Examples of economic categories that differentiate which countries are developed and developing are unemployment levels, living conditions, and economic growth. Despite countries being developed and developing, they all are always trying to improve their economic status. Comparing India and the United States, one can gain a better understanding of the differences of developed and developing countries.
The reader must understand that development is not easily defined within comparative politics. The concept of development is complex and can not be explained as simply as black and white. “For example would you say an oil-rich country such as Saudi Arabia is experiencing development if its economy is growing rapidly but nearly all of the benefits of the growth are going to a small number of elite? Would you say that a country is developing if people are
Although developing countries may have similarities to developed nations they are not financially or economically on the same level. Developed nations have the advantage of having better medical care or healthcare system, better roads, buildings and housing developments and even better technology. There is still a chance for developing nations to reach there one
One way countries are organized and categorized into developing and developed countries based on a various number of factors. Two of the factors that are valued highly in the process of organizing countries are government stability and resource accessibility. These components are held in a higher regard than some of the others because of their significance and importance in the process of building up a country’s economy as well as a country as a whole. Some of these developing countries are great examples of countries that are on their way, do not be mistaken just because they are developing countries does not mean that they do not have bright spots, although those bright spots are few and far between. Instances of these bright spots can be found in almost every country, most especially a country like Nigeria. Many developed countries could once have been developing before being almost completely recreated by one or two key events in their histories. This all is evidence that countries are classified into developing and developed categories through their resource accessibility and government stability.
For post-development theorists such as Esteva or Escobar, development is socially constructed and based in a western economic structure and in the power relationships between developed and developing countries, with a clear domination of the first ones (Escobar p.18, Esteva & Prakash, 1998b, p. 175-182). Positivists claim that development can only be sustained and attained by industrialization, which is achieved through human
The countries which are independent and prosperous are known as Developed Countries. The countries which are facing the beginning of industrialization are called Developing Countries.
The term “development” has been used by political, economic and international relations scholars to explain the relative economic statutes of various countries around the world. Numerous scholars have concerns about the potentially hegemonic nature of using the term “development”. Rhetorically, their concerns range from potential bias at the expense of indigenous methods to the continuation of western imperialist domination and exploitation of lands yet to be further explored. A few of the main concerns of these scholars is ethnic cleansing, resource extraction and false perceptions of the term.
Why is it that some countries are classified as developed and others not? What is the criteria used to determine this? Some people believe that within the criteria to evaluate a country’s development, democracy and economic development must be taken into consideration, and that a link exists between them. Democracy can be defined as a form of government in which people choose their leaders by voting, it also implies equal rights and treatment. (Merriam Webster n.d.) By the other hand, economic development can be defined as the progress in an economy referring to an improvement of living standards, the adoption of new technologies and the transition form an agricultural to an industrial based economy. (Business Dictionary n.d.)
Development vary among countries based on economic indicators of development, gross domestic product per capita, types of jobs, raw materials, consumer goods, social indicators of development, education and literacy, health and welfare, demographic indicators of development, life expectancy, infant mortality rate, natural increase rate, and crude birth rate. Gross domestic product per capita is more per hour in dollars amount in more developed countries compared to less developed country where it is per hour in cents. Types of jobs can depend on the category you are in since there are three categories, primary which includes agriculture, secondary which includes manufacturing and tertiary which includes services jobs. Raw materials are used from such items as minerals and trees where things like paper are made from wood are more accessible in more developing countries and less accessible in less developing countries because of fallen prices. Consumer goods are based off of our ever day life like cars, telephones/cellphones, and televisions that all play a role in the economic world today.
Development is defined as “the process of change operating over time- the process by which countries and societies advance and become richer’’. The modern 20th century defines development as” the process of change which allows all the basic needs of a region to be met, thereby achieving greater social justice and quality of life and encouraging people to fulfill their potential’’. Todaro defines development as “the process of improving the quality of all human lives through raising people’s living standards, their incomes, consumption levels of food, medical services, education, raising people’s self-esteem through the establishment of social, political and economic systems and institutions that promote dignity and respect and increasing people’s
The term developmental state has been widely utilised to describe any state experiencing a period of economic development and improvement in living standards (Pham, 2012). One of the most significant arguments in this scope is the performance of developmental state model. A number of scholars have attempted to investigate this issue and arguments can be divided into three categories. Proponents of state intervention indicate that the state plays an indispensable role in directing economic development and utilising the resources of the country to achieve development goals. On the contrary, those who oppose state-led model argue