Development Of The Mammalian Central Nervous System Essay

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During normal development of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), neural stem cells (NSC) give rise to neurons via process of neurogenesis (Kempermann et al., 2004; Zhao et al., 2008). Neurogenesis normally occurs in dentate gyrus (DG) region of the hippocampus and lateral ventricle of sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) (Zhao et al., 2008). Hippocampal neurogenesis plays pivotal role in neurologic and psychiatric disorder like epilepsy, depression, schizophrenia and mood disorders (Antonova et al., 2004; Keller and Roberts, 2008; Lucassen et al., 2006; Zhao et al., 2008). Development of the nervous system is complex, and includes multistep dynamic processes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, expansion of axons and dendrites, synapse formation, myelination and programmed cell death (Rice and Barone, 2000). These processes required the coordinated expression of cellular and molecular events in a spatial and temporal manner during the brain development (Rice and Barone, 2000; Rodier, 1994). Several growth factors and signal transduction cascades have been implicated in controlling NSC behavior in the developing brain (Faigle and Song, 2013). Among these, members of the Wnt family of secreted glycoprotein thought to be variably influence proliferation and lineage decisions of NSC and their progeny (Clevers et al., 2014).
Several environmental toxicants including heavy metals, solvents, pesticides and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) modulate the normal

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