Development Of The Psychiatric Mental Health

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The development of the Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner (PMHNP) specialty began in the late 19th century as reform began to take place within the mental asylums of the time. Focus began to shift from restrictive treatment and the “baby-sitting” of patients towards actual medical treatment of those with mental illness (ANA, 2012). In 1882, Dr. Edward Cowles established the first hospital for the insane with a formally organized nurse training school. Central to the operation of the hospital was the use of trained nurses instead of “keepers” to care for patients (ANA, 2012). In 1913, Effie Jane Taylor established the first psychiatric nursing course as a part of the general curriculum at John Hopkins Hospital (ANA, 2012). …show more content…

This program was different than the other “nurse-educator” focused programs of the time because it instead focused on assessing and diagnosing mental health problems and providing various therapies such as family, group, and individual (ANA, 2012). In 2003, the role of PMHNP was clearly defined and delineated in “Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner Competencies” published by The National Panel for PMHNP Competencies (ANA, 2012).
To be a practicing PMHNP in Arkansas (AR), I will need to have certification, licensure, a collaborative practice agreement, and prescriptive authority. What I found most interesting about certification was that the required CE requirements needed to maintain ones AR RN licensure could be fulfilled simply by maintaining ones Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) certification (Arkansas State Board of Nursing, 2011). In regards to gaining a license as an APRN in AR, I found it interesting that a quality assurance plan and a collaborative practice agreement must be submitted (in addition to the other required documents) before a license would be issued (Arkansas State Board of Nursing, 2011). As I learned more about what a collaborative practice agreement was, it surprised me that it is encouraged that a collaborative practice agreement be broadly written (Hanson, 2014). This is recommended in order to leave room for growth and change as necessary in the clinical environment. What surprised me the most when learning about

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