Developmental History : The Crispr Technology Originates From The Bacterial Research

933 Words Aug 6th, 2015 4 Pages
DEVELOPMENTAL HISTORY OF CRISPR-CAS9
The CRISPR technology originates from the bacterial research, and about one decade’s efforts have been devoted to study its underlying molecular mechanism. The developmental history of the CRISPR-Cas9 system has revealed that how basic biological research will drive the progress of biotechnologies and therapeutic methods.
The story of this novel technique began in 1987 when Japanese researchers Nakata and his colleagues observed a series of 29nt DNA repeats interspaced by five 34nt sequences downstream of the iap enzyme gene in Escherichia coli (19). More and more such repetitive sequences were detected in bacteria and archaea strains over time. The constant findings have sparked research interest in these repetitive elements. In 2002, Mojica and Jansen abbreviated these clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats as CRISPR (20). In the same year, Jansen also reported that three distinct types of CRISPR-associated Cas genes were usually adjacent to repetitive DNA sequences (20); later, those three Cas genes were utilized to classify the CRISPR system (CRISPR type I-III). The major difference of three CRISPR system is that multiple complex Cas protein components constitute type I and III; in contrast, type II is only constructed by one single protein: Cas9 (Fig. 3) (21). Even though increasingly molecular structures of CRIPSR systems had been understood, their underlying biological mechanisms and functions were still a…
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