Diabetes : A Classification Of Metabolic Disorders

1383 Words Apr 10th, 2016 6 Pages
Diabetes is a classification of metabolic disorders that lead to hyperglycemia. The patient’s metabolism is impaired due to a lack of insulin secretion, or impaired insulin function. Insulin is one of the major components in metabolism of glucose- the body’s primary energy source. Alterations in insulin function lead to alterations in utilization of the glucose stores and cellular function as the body is unable to begin glucose metabolism, leading to a buildup of glucose in the serum. Unmanaged diabetes can lead to a high number of complications, ranging from ocular, renal, neuronal, and vascular. The primary classifications of diabetes include Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 and Gestational diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes is a lack of insulin production. Commonly this is autoimmune, and the body produces antibodies that destroy the specially designed cells in the pancreas, beta cells, that are responsible for insulin production.
Type 2 diabetes on the other hand is due to decreased insulin production, and insulin resistant cells. Under normal circumstances, insulin triggers a shift in glucose, moving it from the bloodstream to the cell where it can be metabolized for ATP. In type 2 diabetes, cells no longer respond to insulin. In both cases, there is a buildup of glucose in the bloodstream.
Type 1 diabetes is most commonly seen in younger people, though it is not unlikely to see latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. The risk factors for developing type one diabetes include genetics,…
Open Document