Diabetes Case Study

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In Diabetes blood glucose levels raise after a meal and remain above normal levels because insulin is either inadequate or ineffective. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, it accounts for 90 to 95% of cases.(1) The primary defect is insulin resistance or a lack of sensitivity to insulin in eight main areas which includes muscle, adipose cells, liver, beta cell in the pancreas, alpha cells in the pancreas, intestine, kidney and brain. Muscle is affected by becoming resistant to insulin and then cannot take up glucose for energy needs. Adipose cells or fat cells start to breakdown contributing to insulin resistance and deposit fat throughout the body. The liver recognises the difficulty of dealing with glucose and increases…show more content…
(3) So, in effect the glucose curve rises after eating but then doesn’t fall back into normal range.
Carbohydrates influence the release of insulin and in type 2 diabetes there is a defect in the process and production of insulin. It creates the question how may a very low carbohydrate affect endocrine, glycaemic and energy metabolism pathways. First how do we define a very low carbohydrate diet, there is a lack of consistency but table 1 is based off the American diabetes association based on less than 70g of carbs a day or based on your calorie intake. (4)

Table 1 (4)
Dietary Classification Based on the Amount of Carbohydrate*
Description of Amount Definition 2,000 Calorie 1,500 Calories 1,200 Calories very-low-carbohydrate 21-70 g/day 4-14% 6-19% 7-23% moderately low- carbohydrate 30-39.9% of energy 150-200g/day 113-149g/day 90-120g/day moderate-carbohydrate 40-65% of energy 200-325g/day 150-245g/day 120-195g/day high-carbohydrate >65% of energy >325 g/day > 245g/day >195g/day

A low carbohydrate diet has been shown to alternate energy metabolism by causing weight loss. This occurs by there being lower levels of insulin and glucose in the fasting state which increases insulin sensitivity of tissues. When insulin sensitivity is increased fatty acids can be burnt more so leading to body fat loss. (5) In Comparision a high carbohydrate diet has an excess of insulin and therefore insulin sensitivity is lost and high

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