Diabetes Is A Syndrome Of Impaired Metabolism Of Fat And Protein

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1. Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of impaired metabolism of fat, carbohydrate and protein which can be caused by either low sensitivity of the tissues to the insulin hormone or lack of insulin secretion. Type 1 diabetes is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and it is caused by lack of insulin secretion.
The cause of diabetes type 1 is not fully understood, however, viral infections, heredity and autoimmune disorders play a important role in the triggering of type 1 diabetes.It’s also known that type 1 diabetes arises when the beta cells of islets of Langerhans which secretes insulin are destroyed by immune-mediated response, viral infection or heredity susceptibility. Furthermore, its onset usually occurs in young people
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Hyperinsulinemia occurs as a compensatory response by the beta cells for the reduced responsiveness of the peripheral tissue to the metabolic effects of insulin. It leads to impaired utilisation and storage of carbohydrate which induces the raise of blood glucose and stimulates its compensatory secretion of insulin. After a prolonged and severe insulin resistance the compensatory effect has its efficiency reduced Insulin resistance development is a slow process which starts with excess weight gain and obesity, however, the mechanism that links obesity with insulin resistance is unknown. The substantial accumulation of visceral fat, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes can occurs due to any acquired or genetic condition, such as polycystic overt syndrome or Cushing’s syndrome, impairing insulin signalling in peripheral tissues. In contrast with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed by a health lifestyle, including exercise and healthy diet.

2. In the liver the storage of glucose is stimulated by insulin. It has many effects in the liver which leads to glycogen synthesis and increased glycogen in the liver. Firstly, it induces the phosphorylation of glucose by activating the enzyme hexokinase. It also activates several enzymes involved in the glycogen synthesis such glycogen synthase and phosphofructokinase.
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