Diabetes Mellitus : A Debilitating And Chronic Disease

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Diabetes Mellitus is a debilitating and chronic disease in which life long care and rehabilitation is required. According to the World Health Organization, diabetes affects over 300 million people worldwide, and continues to rise each year. There are three main categories of diabetes; type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes. The pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus is related to insulin, which is a hormone secreted by the cells of the pancreas. (WHO) Insulin is responsible for maintaining an ideal glucose level in the blood. Due to abnormal insulin metabolism, the cells and tissues can’t make use of glucose from the blood, resulting in elevated blood glucose levels. (WHO) Diabetes is associated with a number of medical complications, which…show more content…
High blood glucose happens when the body can’t use insulin properly or the body has too little insulin (ADA). A number of things can cause hyperglycemia; exercising less than planned or eating more than planned during the day, being sick with the cold or flu, or not administering enough insulin for those who have type 1 diabetes. Signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia includes frequent urination, increased thirst, dry mouth, or nausea and vomiting. Hyperglycemia can lead to ketoacidosis, which is a diabetic coma. Without insulin, the body can’t use glucose for fuel, so the body breaks down fats to use for energy. (ADA) Diagnostic studies for diabetes includes HbA1C, fasting plasma glucose, and oral glucose tolerance test. The HbA1C test measures the average blood glucose for the past 2 to 3 months. Diabetes is diagnosed at an HbA1C of greater than 6.5%. The fasting plasma glucose tests the fasting blood glucose levels. Fasting included not eating or drinking anything for 8 hours before the test. Diabetes is diagnosed at a fasting blood glucose of greater than or equal to 126 mg/dl. The oral glucose tolerance test is a two-hour test that checks the blood glucose levels before and 2 hours after drinking a sweet drink. Diabetes is diagnosed at 2-hour blood glucose level of greater than or equal to 200 mg/dl. (ADA) When a patient is admitted to the hospital, nurses are responsible for the

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