Diabetes Mellitus : A Group Of Metabolic Diseases Characterized By Hyperglycemia Resulting From Defects

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Diabetes Mellitus is “a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. It is a disease which is caused by the insufficient insulin secretion or decrease in the peripheral effects of insulin. It is a serious problem in terms of morbidity and mortality. The hyperglycemia is associated with long term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels. It’s associated with many complications which includes blindness of the eyes and amputations of the extremities. It is also associated with neuropathy, retinopathy, and cardiovascular diseases which lead to mortalities. Since diabetes is one of the most…show more content…
It more commonly affects the adults, especially elderly. Type 2 diabetes is also determined by several different genes. Many patients with type 2 diabetes have the family history of diabetes mellitus. Maternal history also plays a major role in the prevalence of the disease. The main issue is the sensitivity of the peripheral tissues decreases to the circulating insulin which is also called as insulin resistance. The most common symptoms of diabetes mellitus are chronic elevated blood glucose level. Glycosuria is a condition in which the kidneys excrete increased glucose as they are unable to reabsorb the excess amount. This leads to fluid and electrolyte excretion which leads to electrolyte imbalance and dehydration. Loss of glucose leads to increase in the use of fats and protein for the energy, which leads to accumulation of ketone bodies in the blood which leads to ketoacidosis (could be fatal). Generic Name Insulin Trade Name Humulin (R/N), Novolin (R/N) Drug Class Antidiabetic agent Pharmacokinetics Well absorbed from subcutaneous administration and metabolized by liver spleen, kidney and liver. Indications Diabetes mellitus Mechanism of Actions Binds to the receptors located on the target cells triggers changes in cellular activity Increase the glucose uptake by cell membrane of the skeletal muscle cells and fat cells, increased protein synthesis Side Effects Hypoglycemia, allergic reactions Significant

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