Diabetes Mellitus And Insulin Resistance

3121 Words Jul 31st, 2014 13 Pages
1.1 Diabetes mellitus and Insulin resistance
Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a metabolic disorder that is marked by hyperglycemia, high blood glucose. In 2014, 29.1 million individuals in the United States, which is about 9.3% of the population, have diabetes . Among all cases of diabetes, about 90% to 95% are Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), the diabetes form generally results from defects in insulin action . Furthermore, other related complications of diabetes will afflict patients with their cardinal, ocular, renal, and nervous system dysfunction, mainly resulting from hyperglycemia .
1.1.1 History of Diabetes
Unfortunately, though recognition of diabetes has gradually been increasing over 200 years and some progresses have been achieved, there is still no cure for diabetes . One of the possible reasons is that the signaling events related to insulin are quite complicated in both Langerhans islet cells and insulin responsive cells that hundreds of participants directly or indirectly involved in the insulin pathway contribute to regulation of insulin level and regulated metabolic function. The relationship of these participants with insulin signaling is revealed gradually in several decades, which has been viewed as a remarkable milestone in the history of insulin research. Ironically, discovering something unknown in science is always another step into a new field, which leads to arising of more mysteries that confuse discoverer. As a consequence, another aspect for…
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