Diabetes Mellitus And Insulin Resistance

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1.1 Diabetes mellitus and Insulin resistance
Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a metabolic disorder that is marked by hyperglycemia, high blood glucose. In 2014, 29.1 million individuals in the United States, which is about 9.3% of the population, have diabetes . Among all cases of diabetes, about 90% to 95% are Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), the diabetes form generally results from defects in insulin action . Furthermore, other related complications of diabetes will afflict patients with their cardinal, ocular, renal, and nervous system dysfunction, mainly resulting from hyperglycemia .
1.1.1 History of Diabetes
Unfortunately, though recognition of diabetes has gradually been increasing over 200 years and some progresses have been
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During the early stage in the history of diabetes research, diabetes was considered as a disease due to deficiency of insulin produced by islet cells of Langerhans, which, we know nowadays, is shown in most Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) patients and some Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) patients. Distinction between T1D and T2D has first been made in 1936, based on their different pathogenesis .
Type 1 Diabetes usually onsets at very early age of patients, thus it is also named as “juvenile diabetes”, informally. The cause of T1D is hypothesized to be the destruction effect of autoimmune selectively to insulin producing cells, which will lead to further metabolic changes linked to hyperglycemia. Genetic disorder and environment factors may explain most case in T1D .
Even though the primary cause of T2D is unclear, continuous research on the metabolic syndrome over several decades has improved awareness of the complex pathogenesis from which the development and the outcome of T2D results. Originally, T2D is thought to develop most often in middle-aged and older population, but in recent years, the upward trend in occurrence of T2D has been shown in young population. Also, the relation between occurrence of T2D and overweight has been affirmed . However, the complexity of T2D attributes most to multi-stage involved in the course of disease development, as well as the interaction between various organs and tissues. Despite the
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