Diabetes Mellitus As A Chronic Disorder

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Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder characterized by complete or partial insulin deficiency and/or cellular resistance to the actions of insulin which results in an accumulation of glucose in the blood leading to hyperglycemia. Several classifications of medications can be utilized to manage elevated blood glucose in patients with diabetes mellitus. Many formulations of insulin are available to manage blood glucose levels with variations in onset, peak, and duration. Insulin’s mechanism of action promotes cellular uptake of glucose along with potassium and conversion of glucose into glycogen. Oral antidiabetics have various mechanisms of actions, but ultimately work to increase insulin or alter carbohydrate metabolism in order to manage blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Other medications for supplemental control of glucose levels are amylin mimetics and incretin mimetics, which mimic the effects of naturally occurring peptides and can be used with insulin or oral antidiabetics. Amylin mimetics and incretin mimetics both decrease gastric emptying time and inhibit secretion of glucagon, but only incretin mimetics increase release of insulin. Amylin mimetics are used in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, whereas, incretin mimetics are used only with type 2 diabetes. In contrast to the above medications, hyperglycemic agents are utilized to manage hypoglycemia by increasing the breakdown of glycogen into glucose in order to
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