Diabetes Mellitus As A Chronic Metabolic Disorder Essay

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Chapter - 23
Diabetes
Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that prevents the body to utilise glucose completely or partially. It is characterised by raised glucose concentration in the blood and alterations in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. This can be due to failure in the formation of insulin or liberation or action. Since insulin is produced by the p cells of the islets of Langerhans, any receding in the number of functioning cells will decrease the amount of insulin that can be synthesised. Many diabetics can produce sufficient insulin but some stimulus to the islets tissue is needed in order that secretion can take place. During the early stages of the disease, the Insulin Like Activity (ILA) of the blood is often increased, but most of this insulin appears to be bound to protein and is not available for transport across the cell membrane and action of the cell. Globally, as of 2010, an estimated 285 million people had diabetes, with type 2 making up about 90% of the cases. In 2011 it resulted in 1.4 million deaths worldwide making it the 8th leading cause of death. This is an increase from 1 million deaths in 2000. Its rate has increased, and by 2030, this number is estimated to almost double. Diabetes mellitus occurs throughout the world, but is more common (especially type 2) in more developed countries. The greatest increase in rates is, however, expected to occur in Asia and Africa, where most people with diabetes will
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