Diabetes Mellitus Essay

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Diabetes Mellitus

Is a multisystem disease related to abnormal insulin production, impaired insulin utilization, or both. Diabetes Mellitus is a serious health problem throughout the world. It is the 5th leading cause of death in the U.S. It is the leading cause of heart disease, stroke, adult blindness, and nontraumatic lower limb amputations.

Etiology and Pathophysiology

Current theories link the cause of diabetes, singly or in combination, to genetic, autoimmune, viral, and environmental factors (obesity, stress). Regardless of its cause, diabetes is primarily a disorder of glucose metabolism related to absent or insufficient insulin supplies and/or poor utilization of the insulin that is available. The two most common types of
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The rise in plasma insulin after a meal stimulates storage of glucose as glycogen in liver and muscle, inhibits gluconeogenesis, enhances fat deposition in adipose tissue, and increases protein synthesis. The fall in insulin level during normal overnight fasting facilitates the release of stored glucose from the liver, protein form muscle, and fat from adipose tissue. For this reason insulin is known as the anabolic or storage hormone.

Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue have specific receptors for insulin and are considered insulin-dependent tissues. Other tissues (brain, liver, blood cells) do not directly depend on insulin for glucose transport but require an adequate glucose supply for normal function. Although liver cells are not considered insulin-dependent tissue, insulin receptor sites on the liver facilitate the hepatic uptake of glucose and its conversion to glycogen.

Type I Diabetes Mellitus

Formally known as "juvenile onset" or "insulin dependent" diabetes, type I diabetes mellitus most often occur in people who are under 30 years of age, with a peak onset between ages 11 and 13. The rate of type I diabetes is 1.5 to 2 times higher in whites than nonwhites, with a similar incidence among males and females. Typically, it is seen in people with a lean body type, although it can occur in people who are overweight.

Etiology and Pathophysiology

Type I diabetes results from progressive destruction of

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