Essay on Diabetes Mellitus

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1. Discuss the pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic condition in which the body has the inability to produce insulin or react normally to insulin. The pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus is extremely complex, as diabetes mellitus is characterized by different types but share common symptoms and complications. Diabetes mellitus is classified in two types: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Although the disease is "characterized by different etiologies" (Cohen, 2009, pg. 268), the outcome for both types is hyperglycemia. The pathophysicology of Diabetes mellitus is related to the hormone insulin, which is secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin's job is maintaining glucose…show more content…
Although the cause of this disease is unknown, there is a viral or environmental expose (to virus, toxins, or stress) that triggers in genetically susceptible people that causes an autoimmune reaction. Type 2 diabetes, also known as non-insulin dependent Diabetes Mellitus, is the most common form of Diabetes. Unlike people with type 1 diabetes mellitus, people with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus produce insulin. However, the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, hindering the body to use the insulin adequately. The body is resistant to the effects of insulin. This is called insulin resistance. In insulin resistance, the body's cells have a diminished ability to respond to the action of the insulin hormone. As a result, blood sugar does not get into cells to be stored for energy. When sugar can not enter cells, there is a build up of high levels of sugar in the blood, causing hyperglycemia. Elevated levels of blood sugar often triggers the pancreas to produce more insulin, but not enough to keep up with the body's demand, causing a decrease in insulin secretion. Both Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes share one central feature: elevated blood glucose levels due to insufficiencies of insulin. People with type 1 and 2 experience many of the same symptoms such as: increased thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, blurred vision, and fatigue. 3.What are the long term

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