Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 And Type 2

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According to The American Diabetes Association, “Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels” (p.1). There are two types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2. Insulin management is needed for type 1 diabetes, because it is an autoimmune disease. Diabetes Mellitus type 2 is controlled by a strict diet. If the diet is not followed, then hypoglycemic proxies and insulin may be necessary to control a steady blood sugar level (Burden M, 2003). The main symptoms of diabetes common in type 1 are, lethargy, stupor, weight loss, breath which smells like acetone, kussmaul breathing (hyperventilation), nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Signs and symptoms that associate with both diabetes type 1 and 2 are, polydipsia, polyphagia, blurred vision, polyuria, and glycosuria. A diagnostic test which supports the signs and symptoms of diabetes is the fasting plasma glucose. This test diagnoses diabetes primarily during pregnancy. Diabetes is confirmed with a level of greater than 126 mg/dl. The patient must remain NPO for at least 8 hours with the exception of water. An oral glucose tolerance test or glucose challenge test is when a patient drinks a beverage containing glucose. The levels being greater
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