The purpose of this paper is to discuss an exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and its effect on my patient, Mr. HS, a 78 year old male. In this paper we will look at the various facets in the disease process including its incidence, pathophysiology, presenting complaints, analysis of his clinical presentation, and discuss treatment. We will analyze the effect the disease process has on Mr. HS and will examine his clinical manifestations and laboratory work, as well as provide an outcome analysis. Understanding these various facets will enable one to understand
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a group of gradual, incapacitating respiratory conditions, which include emphysema and chronic bronchitis. It is generally characterized by reduced breathing capacity, airflow restriction in the lungs, a persistent cough, and other various symptoms. COPD is notoriously associated with a history of cigarette smoking and has become the number one contributor to mortality in chronic disease of the lower respiratory tract. It is also defined as a preventable and treatable disease with some additive pulmonary effects. The pulmonary component of COPD is defined by airflow limitation that is not deemed to be completely reversible. The aspect of airflow limitation is generally a gradual process and is associated with an abnormal inflammatory response in the lung to foreign gases or particles (McCance, 2014).
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is preventable disease that has a detrimental effects on both the airway and lung parenchyma (Nazir & Erbland, 2009). COPD categorises emphysema and chronic bronchitis, both of which are characterised by a reduced maximum expiratory flow and slow but forced emptying of the lungs (Jeffery 1998). The disease has the one of the highest number of fatalities in the developed world due to the ever increasing amount of tobacco smokers and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality (Marx, Hockberger & Walls, 2014). Signs and symptoms that indicate the presence of the disease include a productive cough, wheezing, dyspnoea and predisposing risk factors (Edelman et al., 1992).
There are no cure for this disease. However, there are different treatment to prevent further deterioration of the lungs function in order to improve the quality of life of the patient by increasing capacity of their physical activity. One of the main severe complication a patient with COPD can develop is exacerbation. Increased breathlessness, increased sputum volume and purulent sputum are the signs and symptoms of exacerbation. Early detection of the signs of exacerbation can help keep the condition of the patient from worsening. The treatments of COPD mainly aims at controlling the symptoms of exacerbation such as taking inhalers. Patients who are over the age of 35 and ex-smokers with chronic cough and bronchitis are recommended to have spirometer (NICE, 2004). This is because it is possible to delay or prevent patients from developing severe case of COPD is identified before they lose their lungs functions. Oxygen therapy is another treatment for COPD as the patients with this condition has high
R.W. appears with progressive difficulty getting his breath while doing simple tasks, and also having difficulty doing any manual work, complains of a cough, fatigue, and weight loss, and has been treated for three respiratory infections a year for the past 3 years. On physical examination, CNP notice clubbing of his fingers, use accessory muscles for respiration, wheezing in the lungs, and hyperresonance on percussion of the lungs, and also pulmonary function studies show an FEV1 of 58%. These all symptoms and history represented here most strongly indicate the probability of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is a respiratory disease categorized by chronic airway inflammation, a decrease in lung function over time, and gradual damage in quality of life (Booker, 2014).
The study began with 32 patients having stages II to IV COPD. They had to meet the criteria pertaining to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; total lung capacity >120%, (FEV1/FVC) <70%, FEV1 <80%, RV/TLC >140% and >40% of predicted values in stable conditions. Patients were removed from the study if they had asthma, heart failure, orthopedic impairments of the shoulder girdle, recent surgery, past thoracic fractures, pneumothorax, and claustrophobia.
Ms. Manock has had by and large very stable symptoms, since her last visit in February. She has had no exacerbations of her COPD. She should continue use of her Symbicort as well as her Xopenex HFA on a p.r.n. basis. She should also continue use of her supplemental oxygen with exertion and with sleep. Given the severity of her COPD, I have suggested reengagement with outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation and Fit For Life, which she is willing to do at this time. I have also encouraged self-directed exercise at home. She has also mentioned some increasing postnasal drip and I have suggested continue use of her Zyrtec as well as over the counter Nasonex to help mitigate her
I will analyse the prevalence of the condition and what the potential causes may be. My interests have been directed to pre hospital care and community lead treatment packages, which are potentially available to the patient, as this is the acute environment, which I will have contact with in my employment as a paramedic. The initial reading was to understand COPD as a chronic condition, what is COPD? and its prevalence in the population. The (World health organisation, 2000), states that one in four deaths in the world are caused by COPD. In 2010 (Vos T Flaxman etal, 2012), says globally there were approximately 329 million, which is 4.8% of the population who are affected by this chronic condition, In the UK (NICE, 2010), have estimated that 3 million people suffer from COPD, with more yet to be diagnosed. This information about the amount of people living with this condition was surprising, as I little knowledge of its existence. During the early 1960’s (Timothy Q. Howes, 2005), says the term COPD had been designated as a single term unifying all the chronic respiratory diseases. Since then the term COPD, has been sub divided in to three umbrella areas, Bronchitis, Emphysema and Chronic asthma, which are separate conditions, which I have been previously aware of as their individual conditions. The 58 year old patient who we visited,
The study included 100 patients with COPD. All patients fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. According to its demographic and clinical parameters and treatment groups differ among themselves. Completed the study, all patients included in the study. The therapy in all patients with a clinically meaningful improvement of symptoms was observed.
Accordingly, to this information of COPD: Coping with COPD from PubMed Health, this article provides the early stages, progression, coping and emergency plan and this disease affects family and friends. It is written answering the question, what to expect from COPD and how to manage this lung disease? A team of health care professionals, scientists and editors, and experts (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 2015), provides education of how this disease may affect daily lives, how to live with this disease and what causes
Rationale: L.J. exhibits symptoms of COPD that include shortness of breath and productive cough. He has a smoking history of 65-pack-year and smoking has been identified as the primary cause/trigger of the disease (Nagelmann et al., 2011).
Millions of individuals suffer and die from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) each year in our nation. Currently, there is no cure for COPD; therefore, the most beneficial goal for these patients is to provide enhanced quality of life that includes limited admissions to the hospital setting and decreased exacerbations. Management of this disease process through proper patient education and multidisciplinary collaboration improves a COPD patient’s ability to maintain a healthier state of life as well as decrease their chance of a costly hospital readmission (Chamberlain, Lau, Siracuse, 2017).
During the second week of my clinical rotation, I had the privilege of being with the respiratory department, as a result of that my research of the Continuity of Care topic will be based on the topic of COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease). COPD patients are usually readmitted due to acute exacerbations also known as (AECOPD). (Laverty et al., 2015). In this paper, we explore the COPD discharge care bundles which have been developed by different authors. The care bundle consists of a short list of certain evidence-based practices to be utilized or implemented before discharge for all patients who have been admitted with COPD, based on reviewing national guidelines, evidenced based practices, expert opinion, other relevant literature, peer-reviewed journals and patient consultation. (Hopkinson et al., 2012).
Some of the laboratory testing used to identify COPD are arterial blood gas and increased hematocrit levels. Arterial blood gas testing will reveals hypoxemia and hypercarbia due to the retention
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, also known as COPD, is the third leading cause of death in the United States. COPD includes extensive lungs diseases such as emphysema, non-reversible asthma, specific forms of bronchiectasis, and chronic bronchitis. This disease restricts the flow of air in and out of the lungs. Ways in which these limitations may occur include the loss of elasticity in the air sacs and throughout the airways, the destruction of the walls between air sacs, the inflammation or thickening of airway walls, or the overproduction of mucus in airways which can lead to blockage. Throughout this paper I am going to explain the main causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and ways to reduce COPD.