The first major controversy concerning classifications of mental disorders is the debate over dimensions vs. categories. According to the APA (2000), DSM–IV is a categorical classification that divides mental disorders into types based on criterion sets with defining features. Categories have been utilized in the past DSMs, however there has been much debate on changing to the dimensional model. The debate stems from the notion that in order for a categorical diagnosis to relate specifically to a disorder, the pathology would have to have been largely resilient to the influence of many other genetic and environmental influences (Widiger & Sankis, 2000). On the contrast, utilizing the dimensional model for a diagnosis would utilize a wide variety of neurochemical, interpersonal, cognitive, and other mediating and moderating variables that help to develop, shape, and form a particular individual’s psychopathology profile (Andreasen, 1997).
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) has a number of features. First of all, every disorder is identified using a name and a numerical code. In addition, the manual provides the criteria for diagnosing each disorder as well as establishes subtypes of a disorder and examples that would illustrate the disorder. The manual goes further by addressing the typical age of onset, culturally related information, gender-related information, prevalence of a disorder, typical clinical course of a disorder, typical predisposing factors of a disorder and genetic family patterns of a disease (Summers, 2009). The DSM-IV is a tool that is used by mental health practitioners and social service workers. As has been demonstrated
Introduction Technology throughout its existence has improved the overall quality of life for many people around the world. Its impact is evident in our generation, where many people rely on technology to gain information on current events, increase work efficiency and even helping us understand ourselves. “Advances in neuroscience, technology and research sophistication have greatly increased understanding of mental illnesses and improved the treatment of these disorders.” (Wahl, 2011). Despite our knowledge on various mental illnesses, many individuals stray away from professional assistance due to the stigma that is attached to the illness; many individuals do not opt for help because they do not want a label attached to them. Social media is a huge platform that influences many people and the slandering that many media platforms do when they discuss the topic of mental illness is slowly increasing and is an issue that must be discussed.
Many doctors and school officials believe that the diagnosis and labeling of these individuals is helpful so that they can be assisted with their struggles. The idea is that if a disorder goes undiagnosed it must go untreated
Mental illness in this manner is the belief that such illnesses can be identified and classified (As in the DSM & ICD)
Everyday people see upsetting posts on social media. These posts cause range of emotions from anger to sadness. Typically, the viewers of these posts have not been exposed to the situations. Mental illness has
Diagnosis of "Andrea C.: Experiencing Violence in the Workplace" Jean Berry Walden University Diagnosis of "Andrea C.: Experiencing Violence in the Workplace" Being able to form a diagnosis properly for a client is a process that is wide-ranging and broad. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) supports recommendations and standards for identifying a diagnosis for a client. The procedure of diagnosing is more than skimming for symptoms in the DSM; one must assess, interview and identify issues, as well as refer to the DSM for a diagnosis.
Medical Model To Treat Psychological Disorders Abnormal Psychology The medical model of abnormal psychology treats mental disorders in the same way as a broken arm, i.e. there is thought to be a physical cause. Supporters of the medical model consequently consider symptoms to be outward signs of the inner physical disorder and believe that if symptoms are grouped together and classified into a ‘syndrome’ the true cause can eventually be discovered and appropriate physical treatment administered. Behaviors such as hallucinations are 'symptoms' of mental illness as are suicidal ideas or extreme fears such as phobias about snakes and so on. Different illnesses can be identified as 'syndromes',
Walking into “Briarcliff Manor”, the psychiatric hospital in American Horror Story: Asylum, immediately you hear patients screaming in your ear, the smell of rust from the chains staff use to restrain them, you can feel the tension between the staff and the patients and if you go into the day room you see people banging their heads on the wall, staring into space, fidgeting endlessly, or talking to someone who isn’t there. Patients are held in cell-like rooms with only a little-barred window and a small opening that staff can slide their food through. The show goes as far as to show a doctor using the patients to “experiment” during which he created “Raspers” which were mutated versions of the patients and were fed deceased patients. Psychiatric hospitals have always been portrayed as a horrifying place to go, American Horror Story hasn't helped that stereotype. It is true that psychiatric hospitals have treated their patients terribly, that was almost seventy years ago. Since then long-stay psychiatric hospitals have been closed with more services to truly help these patients, along with the hospitals have gained laws that need to be followed, there are no hospitals that treat people as inhumanely as hospitals have in the past. These stereotypes scare people from going into a psychiatric hospital to receive the help they truly need because of shows portraying the mentally ill in such a negative way. The mentally
My stereotypes and perceptions of the mentally ill have changed over the years. Some of these were because I lacked knowledge mental health and the other was just being ignorant. Public stigma gave me many preconceptions of the mentally ill. Media was probably the worst with its nightly news reporting, on reasons why a person had disruptive or violent behaviors. Reporter’s always tried to link the mental state of the person to the crime or incident. It was always interesting how everyone in my family sat around the TV making comments. I was young at the at time and listened to how they called confirmed people with a history of mental illness “nuts” or they most have “lost their marbles”. Growing up I remember if anyone did not act normal or
People have gone from never talking about mental illnesses and never educating themselves about them to going online and blabbing about them. People, more specifically teenage girls, go online and post statuses about how they are feeling “depressed” when really they are just in a negative emotional state. When teenagers say that they are “depressed” because they got into an argument with their boyfriend or girlfriend, or they did not have anything to do for the whole day, or they did not do well on an exam, the word loses it’s meaning (Bine). What these teenagers do not understand is that there is a world of difference between simply being sad, or bored, and being clinically depressed (K). If people had any idea what others with mental illnesses went through on a daily basis, like how much pain and sadness they felt (K), then they would definitely show more compassion and think twice before they posted their idiotic statuses.
On the other hand, I have to think about a few things. Why do we have the DSM 5, courses such as abnormal psychology, and most importantly why do the terms “normal” and “abnormal” or “health” and “dysfunctional” exists? All of these labels do not exist for any apparent, if they did not exists as a previous instructor of mine said, or are challenging to label. Then the field of psychology would be inexistent. A major part of the field is due to the mental disorders people have, which have already been labeled. These disorders were labeled in order for clinicians, or professional to do three things: place a label, find the structure of treatment, and treat the disorder. This system here is the whole focus of the DSM in general. As for the course abnormal psychology that was taken during my undergrad career, we touch bases on various brain disorders that were not “normal” for the average mentally stable human. The terms “abnormal”, “normal”, “health” and “dysfunction” do exist due to the previous reasons listed
CLASSIFICATION AND ASSESSEMENT OF MENTAL DISORDERS The DSM is the short form used for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manal of Mental Disorders. It is the most prominent tool used by mental health professionals for the diagnosis of Mental Disorders. It is used by psychiatrists, psychologists, therapists, counsellors, doctors, and nurses. It includes the diagnostic information for all of the mental disorders that are recognized by the American Psychiatric Association. It has evolved over time and has changed according to the developing social norms. The DSM uses documented evidence-based treatment. It also offers a consistent diagnosis for the mental disorders. It offers the diagnostic classification and the criteria for each diagnostic. For each of the approximate 297 disorders listed in the DSM-5, it lists the symptoms present for a diagnoses, a timeline for the symptoms, and lists of other disorders that should be ruled out before a person can be diagnosed with that particular mental disorder. The criterion used in the DSM essentially gives each trained professional the same diagnosis for a same patient.
69 70 Chapter 3 During the Middle Ages some “authorities” classified abnormal behaviors into two groups, those that resulted from demonic possession and those due to natural causes. The 19th-century German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin was the first modern theorist to develop a comprehensive model of classification based on the distinctive features, or symptoms, associated with abnormal behavior patterns (see Chapter 1). The most commonly used classification system today is largely an outgrowth and extension of Kraepelin’s work: the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association. Why is it important to classify abnormal behavior? For one thing, classification is the core of science. Without labeling and organizing patterns of abnormal behavior, researchers could not communicate their findings to one another, and progress toward understanding these disorders would come to a halt. Moreover, important decisions are made on the basis of classification. Certain psychological disorders respond better to one therapy than another or to one drug than another.
Academic background and career interest Ever since my later adolescence years, I have always been intrigued by the diverse complexity of the human brain. Numerous days I have sat down obtrusively observing my surroundings just to satisfy my curiosity on how individuals think, reason and problem solve everyday life happenings. As such, when it was time to attend university, I decided to study psychology as a means of gaining knowledge and understanding about individuals’ cognitive processes and their behavior. During my undergraduate studies, for a particular reason, I was struck by Abnormal Psychology and spent hours thinking about the various disorders captured by the then Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM IV). I spent an awful lot of time trying to understand the differing disorders and how their impact on the behavior and thinking processes of individuals that are diagnosed with them.