Diagnostic Characteristics And Treatment Of Major Depressive Disorder

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The DSM-5 (APA 2013) includes many categories for the diagnostic criteria relating to neurodevelopmental, psychotic, affective, trauma and stressor-related, eating, sleep-wake, conduct, substance-related, neurocognitive, personality and numerous other disorders. Amongst these mental disorders, the 2014 survey conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS 2014), demonstrate that affective/mood, anxiety and substance-use disorders are most prevalent in Australians. Therefore, the diagnostic characteristics and treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), panic disorder and alcoholism will be further explored. It is important to note that in conjunction with the DSM-5 for mental health assessment, primary care health professionals…show more content…
155). Furthermore, according to Hardy and Gray (2012, p. 9), individuals diagnosed with depression present with depressive symptoms such as hopelessness, inability to think clearly, lethargies, sleep disturbance, changes in appetite, withdrawal from social groups and activities and irritability, for a prolonged period of time. The severity of depression can range from mild through moderate to severe and commonly co-exists with other chronic health problems (Hungerford et al. 2015). In this instance, a primary health care provider may utilise depressive screening measures to distinguish the severity of depression through use of the Beck Inventory Scale, Kessler 10 survey or alternatively, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (Gask et al. 2009, p. 113; Hungerford et al. 2015, p.285). To focus specifically on Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), Meadows (2012, p. 672) illustrates that MDD is distinguished from milder reactions in mood by the quality and severity of mood symptoms and the associated decrease in social and occupational functioning. To elaborate, the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria signifies that standards A, B and C must be met to be diagnosed with MDD:
“A. Five (or more) of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning: at least one of the symptoms is either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.
1. Depressed mood most
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