Different Types Of Anxiety And Anxiety

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Rory McIlroy was born in Northern Ireland in 1989 and has been a professional golfer since 2007 (Biography.com Editors). In 2011 aged 22 McIlroy was leading the first round of the Masters Tournament in Augusta, Georgia with a2 stroke lead as he approached the 10th hole. McIlroy then choked and this had detrimental effects on his game causing him to finish in 15th place overall (BBC, 2011). Cashmoore (2002) has described anxiety as ‘an unpleasant emotion, which is characterised by vague but persistent feelings of apprehension and dread’ (Cashmoore, 2002). There are many different types of anxiety including state, trait, somatic and cognitive (Moran, 2004, pp. 72-75). State anxiety has been defined as ‘subjective, consciously perceived feelings of tension and apprehension’ (Spielberger, 1966, p. 17), whereas trait anxiety is an acquired behavioral tendency (Spielberger, 1966). Somatic anxiety relates to the physiological manifestations of anxiety, in sport symptoms include: increased heart rate, rapid shallow breathing and increased perspiration (Davis, Hutchings, & Morris, 1981, p. 541). ‘Cognitive anxiety however is characterised by negative thoughts and worries’ (Moran, 2004, p. 73). Stress is ‘a substantial imbalance between physiological and, or psychological demand and response capability under conditions where failure to meet that demand has important consequences’ (McGrath, 1970, p. 20). In relation to McIlroy his demand could have been remaining calm in order to
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