Different Types of Soils in India

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1. Black soils
The principal region of black soils is the Deccan plateau and its periphery extending from 8°45'to 26o north latitude and 68o to 83o45' east longitude. They are formed from Deccan basalt trap rocks and occur in areas under the monsoon climate, mostly of semi-arid and sub-humid types. The overall climate of black soil region may be described as hot and dry summer, 40-100 cm rainfall per annum, mild to moderate winters and annual temperature ranges from 24-30o centigrade, mean maximum temperature during April-May ranges from 36~42°C arid mean minimum temperature during winter ranges from 15-24° centigrade. Semi-arid to sub-humid, tropical to sub-tropical monsoon type climate with alternate dry and wet periods and calcification
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All lateritic soils are poor in calcium, magnesium, nitrogen, phosphorus and potash. They are generally well drained and porous. The soil reaction is more on the acidic side. On laterites, as already mentioned, rice is grown at lower elevations and at higher elevations, tea, coffee, cinchona, rubber and cashewnut can be grown under good soil management conditions. On the whole, laterites are poor in fertility and readily respond to manuring and good cultivation. Based on the climate lateritic soils are grouped into high rainfall areas with strongly and weakly expressed dry season and humid zones with pronounced dry & wet periods.

4. Alluvial soils
Alluvial soils, cover the largest area in India (approximately 7 lakh km2) and these are the most important soils from agricultural point of view. The main features of alluvial soils have been derived as silt deposition laid down by the Indian river systems like the Indus, the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the rivers like Narmada, Tapti: Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery. These rivers carry the products of weathering of rocks constituting the mountains and deposit them along their path as they flow down the plain land towards the sea. Geologically, the alluvium is divided into recent alluvium which is known as Khadar and old alluvium, as bhangar. The newer alluvium is sandy and light coloured whereas older alluvium is more clayey, dark
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