Differentiating Between Type 1 and 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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Diabetes Mellitus is a disease of the endocrine system primarily differentiated between type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas is unable to produce insulin and was previously seen in the younger generation which is no longer the case.1 Type 2 diabetes is the more prevalent of the two types and involves elevated blood sugar levels due to the insufficient production of insulin. Risk factors that make an individual higher risk for type 2 diabetes include increasing age, obesity, family history, a sedentary lifestyle.1,2 Innovative drug therapies for type 2 diabetes remain important for the treatment and reduction of the disease.
The prevalence of diabetes according to the CDC is 26 million Americans
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Other drugs with a similar mechanism of action include empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, ipragliflozin, but these are not FDA approved. Since the sodium glucose transporter is located in the proximal part of the kidney, and responsible for 90% of glucose reabsorption, the reabsorption is therefore inhibited.2 This results in decreased blood glucose due to a decrease in glucose reabsorption and increase in excretion.
Invokana is initially administered 100 mg by mouth every day before the first meal of the day. The dose can be increased to 300 mg every day in patients tolerating the initial dose who have a GFR greater than 60 mL/min/1.73m2 in need of additional glycemic control.3 Adverse effects that have been noted with this medication include increased urination, yeast infections, and negative gastrointestinal effects.4,6 Safety considerations include dehydration, vaginal yeast infections in women and men, and it is not advised to take Invokana if you are allergic or have severe renal impairment and/or are on dialysis.4 It is therefore imperative that patients are screened appropriately before being placed on this medication, and that monitoring is performed in certain disease states, particularly those involving renal disease.
Literature Evaluation
The first study by Lavalle-Gonzaled, Janus Zewicxz Davidson J and et al. was on the “Efficacy and safety of Canagliflozin compared with placebo and Sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes on

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