Accordingly, this document has been developed to provide information regarding DTL Power and the measures that have been developed and implemented to safeguard its information and information systems from a cyber threat. This document is broken down into several sections that will provide an analysis of DTL Power and the energy sector; as well as the effectiveness of cybersecurity technology/policies in the energy sector, the team’s cyber strategy, and budget.
ABB Ltd provides power and automation technologies for utility and industrial customers worldwide. The company Power Products segment offers switchgears, circuit breakers, capacitors, surge arresters, cable accessories, high voltage components, reclosers, fuses, contactors, relays, sensors, motor control centers, ring main units, and modular systems; and power, traction, distribution, and other special transformers. Its Power Systems segment provides integrated power and automation solutions; alternating current (AC) and direct current transmission systems; flexible AC systems technologies; land and submarine cables, as well as accessories and services for medium-to high-voltage AC and DC systems; air-and gas-insulated substations; and network management solutions. This segment also offers support agreements and retrofits, spare parts, service, and training; and consulting services. The company Discrete Automation and Motion segment provides motors, generators, variable speed drives, programmable logic controllers, robots and robotics, solar inverters, wind
The power system is installed within 5 electrical substations with emergency equipment, generators, medium voltage panels and transformers.This installation makes the power distribution to Petrobras Headquarters UOBS, which currently controls its offshore operation units (oil platform).The power system is divided into the following subsystems:
Present power system is in need of a high level of redundancy and reliable protection devices along with the periodic maintenance to keep the system healthy. In these circumstances, there is a need for an efficient protection
This report covers the real-time system design and the different components of the SCADA Energy Management System. Specifically, this report will focus on the General Electric XA/21 SCADA system and how it all fits together and how it provides a solution to end-users and administrators. The XA/21 is a very scalable and customizable system and that will be described at great length in this report (General Electric, 2013).
Automation Business & Control & Relay panel Business were the other two business verticals of ERL; design of control and relay panel for the Electrical substation. Those verticals are our internal customers apart from the other Electricity boards. Energy meters are very critical in an electrical system as this is directly linked to the revenue generation of the utility. A minor flaw in the design may leads to huge loss to the Electrical utility. Hence the design validation of Energy meter is very critical in terms of the Business point of view. Also Bureau of Indian standard certification is a Mandatory requirement for selling this product in India. Hence our Management has given emphasis on the design validation to release a successful product in the
HVDC transmission may also be selected for other technical benefits. HVDC can transfer power between separate AC networks. HVDC powerflow between separate AC systems can be automatically controlled to support either network during transient conditions, but without the risk that a major power system collapse in one network will lead to a collapse in the second. HVDC improves on system controllability, with at least one HVDC link embedded in an AC grid—in the deregulated environment, the controllability feature is particularly useful where control of energy trading is needed.
Base layer is base for smart grid and self-healing control system and this base layer is collection of power grid and its equipment. The Support layer is collection of data and communication. Main function of this layer is to control the transmission of data and communication between different nodes. High speed, bi directional, real time transmission and communication is held by this layer. The application layer is collection of monitoring, decision-making, restoration.
By means of operator screens in the control center, the operation of the plant is controlled and automatically executed, and the operator also has the possibility of controlling and controlling the computer. For more efficient operation of the system, computer automation is required for more reliable, more economical operation. System control and monitoring software has been implemented for this. Monitoring of the system in the computer environment makes the control and control of the system more flexible.
Sakari’s SK33, a digital switching system, uses components that are freely available in the open market and this is a major positive factor for Nora since other potential partners like NEC and Ericsson required purchase of components developed by parent companies. SK33 is attractive also since it is modular, its software could be upgraded to provide new services, it could interface easily with new equipment in the network, and it could lead to developing new switching systems. Sakari’s networks are easily adaptable, can cater to large exchanges in urban areas and small exchanges for rural needs.
Pertaining to the power grid with the connected bodies of the federal government and private sector the widespread accessibility via cyber space automated systems of power plants, distribution systems in its self could be problematic…i.e. could contribute to incapacitating large areas of power grids system via cyber-attacks. Possible consideration would be to isolate communications from standard cyber space via secured lines (buzzle.com 2016). Less debilitating to grid system are attacks as in one on one sabotage on individual power plants or remote distribution and substations that would interrupt local areas. Assuming power plants have adequate security on site will effectively reduce power plant attacks. In regards to distribution and substations in suburban or rural areas all one has to do would be to take a drive through the countryside or down a neighborhood to understand these are soft targets protect only by a chain-link fence.
Introduction: Distance protection is the most widely used to protect transmission lines. The fundamental principle of distance relaying is based on the local measurement of voltages and currents, where the relay responds to the impedance between the relay terminal and the fault location . There are many types of distance relay characteristic such as mho, reactance, admittance, quadrilateral polarized-mho, offset mho etc. Every type of characteristics has different intended function and theories behind .
First and foremost, I would like to express gratitude to NLDC, Power System Operation Corporation Ltd (POSOCO) for providing me a magnificent opportunity in the form of this dissertation to learn.