Dinoflagellate Algae

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Negative impacts of Dinoflagellate algae: economic, ecologic, and human health hazards

ABSTRACT Increasing pollution both atmospheric and oceanic are encouraging algal growth and increasing the frequency and geographic range of high density dinoflagellate blooms. Public health and economic impacts, as well as negative ecological effects of the aquatic environment are increasing the scientific research done on toxic dinoflagellate species. Contaminated bivalves are causing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in humans (DSP); with the number of cases increasing steadily in the last 40 years. Toxins released by certain species of the phylum dinoflagellate are the cause of this spreading
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A general trophic routing and impact model is proposed in Fig. 1 below, (Smayda 1992). Aquaculture has recently started to have major concern surround dinoflagellate species taking over bioassay tanks, that house several species of finfish that are being decimated by the presence of one of the thousands of species of dinoflagellates. Finfish, is an important group of fish to coastal fishing industries who experience damage to the gills from the armored bodies of dinoflagellate, and the spines extending down the length of their bodies. Table 1 below is a list of all finish, bivalves, and various oceanic wildlife affected by recent increases in dinoflagellate populations. (Anderson et al. 1993). In the following review I will cover impacts toxic dinoflagellate species are having on oceanic organisms and the subsequent effects to aquaculture and fishing industries, and the reasons for increasing frequencies and densities of toxic blooms.

INCREASING ALGAL BLOOMS Algae population dynamics is based on growth, transportation, predation, mortality, and dispersion. The success of an algal population depends on the gains and losses depicted in a basic equation of population dynamics: dN/dt=(Growth+Immigration)-(Predation+Mortality+Dispersion). If the gains are higher than the losses a bloom will
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