Transmission: Whooping cough is transmitted via close personal contact, uncovered sneezes and coughing from infected people. Whooping cough is also transmitted through the droplets in the air and it can develop from the upper respiratory tract (including the nose, throat and windpipe) infections. Any individuals that are close to infected people may be exposed to
Hospital acquired infections (HAIs) affect over 1.7 million patients each year, causing almost 100,000 deaths annually in the United States alone (Johnson, 2010). According to the World Health Organization, HAIs are the most frequent adverse event in the healthcare industry. Fortunately, most of these infections can be prevented with one single intervention, proper hand hygiene (“The Evidence,” n.d.). Four out of five pathogens that cause illness are spread by direct contact. Proper hand hygiene eliminates these pathogens and helps to prevent cross-contamination and HAIs (Linton, 2015; “Hand Hygiene,” n.d.). Reduction of cross-contamination and HAIs improves patient outcomes, increases employee wellness, and lowers health care costs. Adherence to proper hand hygiene is the single most important safety measure in the health care setting. However, for many years compliance to proper hand hygiene in the healthcare industry has been dismally low. New and inventive measures must be implemented to increase compliance to proper hand hygiene and lower the rate of hospital-acquired infections.
It isn’t transmitted as an infectious disease. It’s based around the actual spreading of the disease its self and the areas of the body its spread to and the stage it’s currently at.
Keeping our hands clean is one of the most effcient and important steps we can do as humans to avoid getting sick or spreading germs to other people. Unwashed hands spread many diseases such as the flue, E. coli, and salmonella. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is still one of today’s most leading causes of infection in health care facilities. The risk of clinicians, patients, and visitors not complying with hand hygiene protocols creates a practice problem for nurses and their patient care. The cause of health care infections, also known as, health care-associated infections (HAIs) are increasing along with the rise of the inability to control or treat infections that are multi-drug resistant. Lack of proper hand hygiene is a major problem in clinical settings sourcing from critical care divisions where the most contaminations are prevalent. This paper will discuss how hand hygiene affects the nursing process and solutions of how to better prevent HAIs within the nursing scope of practice.
HIV is a virus that can lead to AIDS. Patients infected with HIV often shows no symptoms until the disease has progressed to AIDS. HIV is transmitted through bodily fluids, but cannot be transmitted through casual contact. Most commonly, HIV is transmitted through sexual contact. It may be transmitted through blood-to-blood contact, such as needle sharing or accidental needle sticks in a healthcare setting. It may also be transmitted during pregnancy or birth from mother to child. It cannot be transmitted through casual contact such as hugging, playing sports or touching something that was touched by someone infected (CDC, n.d).
The spread of infection requires three elements. The first is; A source of infecting microorganisms: This could be an exogenous infection which arises from microorganisms external to the individual and do not exist as normal flora. They usually have a preferred portal of entry like the gastrointestinal for Salmonella. Another source is endogenous infections which can occur when part of the client’s flora becomes altered and an overgrowth results e.g. Yeasts infection. Second requirement is means of transmission for the microorganism, which also explains the three primary modes of pathogen transmission. For example, vertical transmission is when a pathogen is
It may be a virus or bacteria that would cause an illness. The reservoir is the place where the pathogen may adhere to live and survive. It can be a person, animal, or environmental component such as water or soil. The portal of exit is the invasion or place where the pathogen may leave the reservoir. It can be saliva, mucous membranes, feces, blood or any discharges coming out from the body. The means of transmission can be directly or indirectly transmitted. Direct transmission requires close association with the infected host, but not necessarily physical contact. Indirect contact requires a vector, such as an insect or animal. The portal of entry can be done in three ways: penetration or a cut to the skin, inhalation, or ingestion. Then it is already in the new host, which will have various factors on how the host will be affected by its severity and will also depend on the health and well being of the
The three primary ways of infectious diseases are contact, droplet, and airborne. Contact can be split into direct and indirect contact. Direct contact involves the moving of infectious agents to an impressionable person through physical contact with an infected person. Indirect contact transmission happens
The transmission of Gonorrhea is strictly direct contact, most commonly transmitted through sexual contact with an infected person. Transmission of this contagious sexual disease also includes having direct contact with infected bodily fluids. For example, a mother could pass on the infection to her newborn during childbirth. Gonorrhea is an infection of the reproductive system in either women or men. The invading pathogen enters the body through the spaces
Healthcare associated infections have an impact on patients - how? Can be prevented greatly with compliance to hand hygiene protocols (REF).
Mechanical transmission is facilitated by a mechanical vector, an animal that carries a pathogen from one host to another without being infected itself. For example, a fly may land on fecal matter and later transmit bacteria from the feces to food that it lands on; a human eat-ing the food may then become infected by the bacteria, resulting in a case of diarrhea or dys-entery
The three categories of Transmission-Based Precautions include: 1) Contact Precautions- this is the transmission that occurs with the physical of the infected patient or handling of a contaminated object in the infected patient’s room. Masks, gowns, and gloves as well as standard precautions must be used by health care providers when in the infected patient’s room. The only procedure that reduce the risk of spread of infections through direct or indirect contact. 2)
SARS appears to spread by close person-to-person contact. It is thought that transmission is most readily occurred through respiratory droplets. These can be produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes. These droplets are propelled through the air and are deposited on the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, or eyes of a person that is nearby. It is also possible that the virus can spread when a person touches a surface or object contaminated with infectious droplets and then touches their mouth, nose, or eyes. Furthermore, it is possible that SARS-CoV might be airborne spread or by other methods that are not yet known.