The majority of medicines are formulated for oral administration. This means they are taken via the mouth, in the form of a tablet, capsule, liquid or suspension. These medicines come in a variety of
Marsha McMillen Week One Discussion Pharmacology The four factors that affect the rate of drug distribution. 1. Absorption – “How the drugs enter the circulation process through the body, and how they resist general breakdown by the stomach, liver, and the intestines”. Some of the factors that affect the absorption of drugs
* Consider pharmacokinetics, nursing implications and /or health teaching as you create your post Compare and contrast safe medication administration for a very young and very old patient Pharmacokinetics "is the way a drug is absorbed, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (pg. 749 Treas)
Medicine is a very important part in keeping humans alive and healthy. Different types are capable of many things such as: relieving pain, fighting disease, “balance systems and organs in the body,” fighting infection, supplementing a deficiency, helping a bodily mechanism fix itself, and decrease, and overabundance of a body substance (Howell 2017). There are many ways that medicine can be administered, and include, but are not limited to: orally, sublingually, injection, intravenous, dermal, and inhalation. After the administration, the drug is delivered throughout all of the body systems and will perform by causing the effects it was made to put out. Finally, the medicine and waste are washed out of the body.
Among other approaches tried by scientists, colloidal systems like liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles etc., have shown promise but not many products have made it to the market (7). Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems are gaining much popularity in recent years. Among these, nanoparticulate drug delivery systems from biodegradable and biocompatible polymer are an interesting option for controlled drug delivery and drug targeting (8). Amongst the various drug-delivery systems, solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carrier (NLCs) are potentially attractive choices due to their natural components and easily scaled-up formulation processes. In addition, their hydrophobic core provides a suitable environment for entrapment of hydrophobic drugs (9). Among the important technological advantages of nanoparticles as drug carriers are: high stability (i.e. long shelf life), high carrier capacity (i.e. many drug molecules can be incorporated into the particle matrix), feasibility of incorporation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances, and feasibility of variable routes of administration (10). NLCs are kind of lipid-based nanoparticles, which has the advantages of biodegradable, brain targeting, well-recognized safety profile by drastically reducing drug-related toxicities through reduction of nonspeciﬁc biodistribution (11). NLCs consist of an unstructured solid lipid
Many prescription drugs taken orally are absorbed in the small intestine. The amount of medication that reaches the bloodstream depends on how much is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract. Here’s kind of a brief description of how drugs move through the body … Some portion of a drug may be lost
Lipid depot in cerebrospinal fluid Depocyt Cytosine arabinocide Ovarian cancer, AIDS-related Kaposi.s sarcoma Injectable polymer rod Zoladex luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist Prostrate cancer Polymer microsphere Lypron depot luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist Prostrate cancer Implantable water Gliadel Carmustine Gliomas-malignant Polymer microsphere Decapeptyl luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist Prostrate cancer Transdermal patch Duragesic Fentanyl Pain management PEGylated drug Oncaspar L-Asparaginase Acute lymphoblastic leukomia PEGylated drug Neulasta granulocyte-colony stimulating factor Prevention of neutropenia associated with cancer chemotherapy Transdermal patch Prostep Nicotine cancer prevention -Smoking cessation. Transdermal patch Nicoderm Nicotine cancer prevention -Smoking cessation. Transdermal patch Habitrol Nicotine cancer prevention -Smoking cessation. Polymer based Zinostatin (stimalmer) polymer conjugated to the anticancer protein neocarzinostatin-SMNACS Hepatocellular carcinoma Liposome Daunoxome Daunorubicin AIDS-related Kaposi.s 1. Controlled drug release Many molecules, particularly peptides and polypeptides are physically embedded in polymers to create a complex network of interconnecting pores through which the drug could subsequently diffuse. The pore structure and polymer composition is controlled in order to design systems that release the drug at nearly any rate and for nearly
Another possibility is the process of disguising medically active molecules with lipophilic molecules that allow it to better sneak through the bbb, this is known as the pro-drug method. Another idea similar to the pro-drug method is peptide masking which masks the drugs chemical composition by masking a peptide's (a compound consisting of two or more amino acids linked in a chain) Characteristics by combining with other molecular groups that are more likely to pass through the bbb. An example of this is using a cholesteryl molecule instead of cholesterol that serves to conceal the water soluble characteristics of the drug. One of the most promising drug delivery systems is using nanoparticle delivery systems. These are systems where the drug is bound to a nanoparticle capable of traversing the bbb. The most promising compound for the nanoparticles is Human Serum Albumin (the most abundant protein in human blood plasma). The main benefits of this are that particles made of HSA are well tolerated and do not have any serious sided
It is clear from Figure 9 that the conventional release system has some limitations. Frequent administration is required because of the short half-life[38,39]. However, the release rate of the controlled release system, can be kept at a expected level for a relatively long period of time. It can avoid drug plasma level fluctuations and stabilize plasma level. In addition,
Therefore the systemic delivery of protein or peptide biologics requires the parental route of administration through subcutaneous injections, but there are multiple problems with this method of drug delivery. For systemic absorption, intact drug molecules must pass from the administration site through or between the intestinal epithelial cells to the general circulation and the target site (Lee et al.,
Systemic drugs, or analgesics, often include narcotics that are designed to dull the pain, while still keeping the patient alert and aware during delivery. Tranquilizers are also sometimes given in order to reduce anxiety, stress and nausea. Systemic drugs are often given through an intravenous (IV) line or as an injection into the muscle. This spreads the relief throughout the entire body rather than just the pelvic area.
One formulation approach that could be used in order to develop a one-month sustained release formulation of compound 5 as a microbicide would be using intravaginal rings. Intravaginal rings are flexible and torus shaped devices that are placed in the vagina (adjacent to the cervix). A concentration gradient is formed
When a prohormone or steroid is absorbed into the epithelial cell it is then partitioned (or directed) into either the portal vein or the lymphatic system. The process that determines this partitioning (choosing of one or the other disposition) is called “superlipophilicity”. Creating a system of delivery that will cause partitioning in the right direction is part of the equation, but not the whole picture.
1.3 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PARENTRAL FORMULATION  1.3.1 Advantages :- • A direct physiological response is achieved. This is important in medical situation, e.g. cardiac arrest, anaphylactic shock and asthma. • Parenteral formulation is essential for drugs that offer poor bioavailability or those that are rapidly degraded within the gastrointestinal tract. They
C) In-situ gel systems A disadvantage of solutions is their moderately short seat time in the eye, which can be avoided via the development of solutions that are liquid in container and this can be instilled as eye drop but transformed to gel on contact with the tear fluid. Thus,