Discuss Scientific Management, Max Weber and Concept of Bureaucracy, the Hawthorne Experiments and Contemporary Management Thought, Giving Advantages and Disadvantages of Each One of Them.

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2.3 DISADVANTAGES OF MAX WEBER AND THE CONCEPT OF BUREAUCRACY
Despite the clear advantages of bureaucracy, one would wonder if they are really efficient. Nearly all governmental organizations adopt this form of organization to some extent and weber claimed they were capable of achieving the highest efficiency. Below are draw backs of bureaucracy concepts: (a) Impersonality can ensure a common level of treatment but may also lead to stereotyping behavior and lack of responsiveness to individual incidents. Relationships are inhibited, meaning that social and ego needs are unsatisfied. (b) Human beings and individual circumstances vary pretty much infinitely and trying to apply rigid rules can mean inefficiency, even injustice, in
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The illumination and interviewing studies, on the other hand, involved whole departments of workers.
From these experiments, the final core conclusions that the researchers reached were that the experimental variables such as incentive payment had little effect, while that the unmeasured quality of human relations of workers to management and peer group was responsible for most output improvement (Gale, 2004).
3.1 ADVANTAGES OF THE HAWTHORNE EXPERIMENTS
In the past, managers considered workers as machinery that could be bought and sold easily. To increase production, workers were subjected to long hours, miserable wages and undesirable working conditions. The welfare of workers and their need were disregarded. The Hawthorne studies helped in shaping transformations in many areas of human relations and brought about radical changes in organizational behavior.
The traditional popular belief that increasing output of an organization was directly related to increasing workers’ wages was disproved. Experiments conducted by Mayo proved that there were more than economic factors that improved efficiency. Consequently, human relations were a key component to improve organizational output as evidenced from tests conducted.
The Hawthorne experiments evolved the rest pauses as cardinal for well-being and effectiveness of workers and efficient

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