Discuss The Multiple Ways Of Knowing

Decent Essays
Discuss the multiple ways of knowing. Are there any other ways of knowing?
According to Carper (1978), in order for nurses to learn and be taught, there must be an understanding, by both the educators and students, of the patterns of nursing practice. These patterns have been categorized into four ways of knowing: empirical, esthetics, personal knowledge, and ethics. Zander (2007) identifies four other ways of knowing; experience, intuition, unknowing, and sociopolitical.
In 1978, Carper identified empirical knowledge as the science of nursing. Its purpose was to reach a conclusion by going through the scientific process. This knowledge has brought upon the literature, theories, models, and principles with which we model our practices on today. Empirical knowledge was the pathway that lead to the science of nursing finding the correlation between health and illness and the impact they have on a person’s life.
Esthetic knowledge is referred to as the art of nursing (Carper, 1978). The art is truly in the craft of the technical skills of being nurse. Being able to place an IV, knowing just what to say to a volatile patient to get them to calm down, or being able to have a conversation with a patient and identify stressors, complications, and past symptoms to start personalizing a care plan for them are not innate skills. Nurses hone these abilities and master them throughout their careers. Each nurse has their own signature for each masterpiece and no two nurses use the same
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