Discuss the biological explanation for phobic disorders

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Discuss issues of reliability and validity associated with the classification and diagnosis of phobic disorders (24 marks)
The biological explanation for the acquisition of phobic disorders establishes that phobias are caused by genetics, innate influences and the principles of biochemistry. This theory recognizes that an oversensitive fear response may be inherited, causing abnormal levels of anxiety. This is illustrated in the basis of inheritance, particularly the adrenergic theory that convicts that those who have an acquisition to phobic disorders consequently show high levels of arousal in the automatic nervous system, which leads to increased amounts of adrenaline, thus causing high levels of anxiety.
However this theory lacks
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Parallel to this, the focus on genetics is Particularly convicted in twin studies, which establish a comparison between monozygotic twins that are identical and dizygotic twins, which are opposingly non-identical. This distinction can be identified in Torgersens study, which compared MZ and same sex DZ twins where one proband had an anxiety disorder, and it was discovered that such disorders were 5x more frequent in MZ twin pairs, who mutually shared identical genetics.
This theory creates an issue, as it only looks at nature’s impact as the root cause of phobic disorders and relishes in not accounting for environmental causes, which are posed by nurture. This aspect of nurture which is ignored can be questioned in the twin studies as although Torgersen found that identical twins who share genes are 5x more likely to share an anxiety disorder, it is unclear whether it is the nature of the genetic makeup which causes the disorder, or the nurture of the twins, as they would have both gone through the same things in their environment causing the contamination effect. This is further highlighted through the diathesis stress model formed by Di nardo et al which provides a much more
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