There are no cure for this disease. However, there are different treatment to prevent further deterioration of the lungs function in order to improve the quality of life of the patient by increasing capacity of their physical activity. One of the main severe complication a patient with COPD can develop is exacerbation. Increased breathlessness, increased sputum volume and purulent sputum are the signs and symptoms of exacerbation. Early detection of the signs of exacerbation can help keep the condition of the patient from worsening. The treatments of COPD mainly aims at controlling the symptoms of exacerbation such as taking inhalers. Patients who are over the age of 35 and ex-smokers with chronic cough and bronchitis are recommended to have spirometer (NICE, 2004). This is because it is possible to delay or prevent patients from developing severe case of COPD is identified before they lose their lungs functions. Oxygen therapy is another treatment for COPD as the patients with this condition has high
The cause of COPD is from long term smokers and also from people who smoke marijuana which increases a higher risk of COPD. Normally it begins with a cold or infection of the pharynx. Chest pain along with coughing having shortness of breath, and wheezing
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is in the top five principal cause of death in the U.S. The disease is an abnormal inflammatory reaction in the lungs with limited airflow. COPD characteristically arises around the age 35. Smoking continues to be the main source of COPD, but is not the only known root cause. In many studies, smoking explanations for at least three fourths of COPD cases ("Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease | University of Maryland Medical Center," n.d.). Stopping smoking has been known to improve lung capabilities and help to prevent death from COPD. Genetic conditions and introductions to airborne toxins, irritants and gasses are correspondingly involved in the growth of the illness. A complete treatment plan could comprise of lifestyle changes, one or more medications, patient education, oxygen therapy respiratory rehabilitation, and surgery ("Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease | University of Maryland Medical Center," n.d.).
COPD is almost always caused by smoking, or second hand smoke. The tobacco smoke irritates the airways and destroys the fibers in the lungs. Breathing in chemical fumes, dust, or air pollution over a long period of time may also cause it. It usually takes a long time for the lung damage to start causing symptoms, so COPD is most come in people who are older than 60.
A. has a history of smoking for 50 years and being diagnosed with COPD 2 years ago. Development of COPD and its exacerbations may be a leading caused by bacteria, viruses, or environmental pollutants, including cigarette smoke. Coussa, et al, “Expiratory flow limitation (EFL), as a consequence of airway inflammation is the pathophysiological hallmark of COPD.” Exacerbations fundamentally reflect acute worsening of EFL and there is evidence for both increased airway inflammatory activity and worsening airway obstruction as likely explanations.
Patients will usually have the symptoms seen in asthma, emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Exposure to noxious stimuli such as cigarette smoke is a major cause of COPD. Symptoms include productive cough, shortness of breath and wheezing (Nagelmann et al., 2011).
It has been found that 12% of moderate and 26% of heavy smokers will develop a form of COPD in the later stages of life (Larsson, 2007). These statistic are shown to increase significantly as those who smoke age with approximately 50% of smokers diagnosed with COPD by the age of 75 (Larsson, 2007). It has been found that 90% of chronic bronchitis patients have developed the disease because of a long-standing history of tobacco smoking (TXT). Other important factors include air pollution, occupational hazards, advanced age, airway hyper-responsiveness, diet, alcohol consumption and heredity (Edelman et al., 1992). Although mortality rates for COPD have decreased due to the progression of medical care, COPD currently has one of the highest mortality rates throughout the developed world (Viegi et al., 2001). It currently ranks as the third highest burden of disease in Australasia and the ninth highest worldwide (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2013). The number of people with COPD is predicted to rapidly increase globally over the coming decades as the tobacco epidemic continues (Viegi et al. 2001). COPD also places a large economic burden on the world with the costs of treatment and care as well as the days of work lost (Viegi et al. 2001).
Diagnosing COPD is multifactorial, as stated previously, an all-encompassing nursing assessment and patient history must be conducted. When these processes are finalized, and subjective evidence points towards COPD, it is necessary to confirm the diagnosis with objective data. The definitive way to do this is by conducting pulmonary function testing (PFT); specifically, spirometry. On top of diagnosing, spirometry, is also pertinent for staging the patients COPD (Corbridge,et al., 2012). In addition to these facets, there are several other radiologic and laboratory tests that are helpful in determining the severity of COPD; they are not so much diagnostic, as they are informative.
The most common cause of COPD is smoking, since inhaling tobacco smoke for a long time destroys the lung tissues and irritates the airways. However, second-hand smokers seem to be in danger, as well.
COPD is a multi-system and multi-symptom disease. This means that it attacks the respiratory system, primarily, as well as the cardiovascular system. It also produces several symptoms that can be disguised for other pathologies and diseases. It is a progressive disease, meaning that treatment generally consists of easing symptoms, not curing them. Since it ends up being a terminal disease, a large part of treatment and patient care is developed around quality of life and the final stages of the patient.
All over the world, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a very significant and prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality, and it is increasing with time (Hurd, 2000; Pauwels, 2000; Petty, 2000). Due to the factor of COPD being an underdiagnosed and undertreated disease, the epidemiology (Pauwels, Rabe, 2004) is about 60 to 85 % with mild or moderate COPD remaining undiagnosed (Miravitlles et al., 2009; Hvidsten et al., 2010).
Some of the laboratory testing used to identify COPD are arterial blood gas and increased hematocrit levels. Arterial blood gas testing will reveals hypoxemia and hypercarbia due to the retention