Diseases Caused By The Protozoan Parasites Cryptosporidium Parvum And Toxoplasma Gondii

1033 WordsNov 20, 20165 Pages
Introduction Parasites are organisms which live in close association to a host organism, the relationship is non-mutualistic, in which the parasite benefits and the host incurs costs. (Roberts & Janovy, 2008) The costs range from a visible form of reduced fecundity or survival, but also more subtly such as reduced attractiveness, leading to reduced mating success (Ebert, 2005). This essay will concentrate on two diseases caused by the protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Toxoplasma gondii. Cryptosporidium parvum is an apicomplexan parasite that exhibits a faecal-oral type life style. (Wiser, 2011) C. parvum causes the disease cryptosporidiosis, which infects the mammalian intestinal tract, specifically the distal small intestine. Moreover, it can also affect the respiratory tract in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. (Tzipori, 2014). Also, Toxoplasma gondii causes Toxoplasmosis, which predominantly is asymptomatic, however it can cause flu-like symptoms and eye problems in a small number of hosts (Hunter & Sibley, 2012). Biology Cryptosporidium parvum C.parvum is one of many Cryptosporidium species which can infect humans. the beginning of the life cycle starts with the ingestion of the C. parvum oocysts which can be seen in Figure 1 as stage 3. Once ingested the oocysts migrate with other ingested material along the digestive tract. Until it reaches the intestine, here it releases sporozoites (stage A & B) these sporozoites move the intestinal
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