Diversity Of Escherichia Coli Isolated From Pigs Reared Using Different Husbandry Practices

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Diversity of Escherichia coli Isolated from Pigs Reared Using Different Husbandry Practices Christopher Gemmell 0844930 MCB*4500 December 12th, 2016 Introduction When pigs are born, their gastrointestinal tract is sterile, but it is rapidly colonized with microorganisms (Katouli et al. 1995, Lallès et al. 2016). One of the many microorganisms is Escherichia coli, an extremely versatile bacterium, which is estimated to make up 1% to 4% of the cultivable colon bacteria (Schierack et al. 2006, Schierack et al. 2009, Herrero-Fresno et al. 2015). E. coli strains can be divided into non-pathogenic (commensal) and pathogenic strains (Schierack et al. 2006, Schierack et al. 2009, Herrero-Fresno et al. 2015). Pathogenic E. coli strains cause gastrointestinal disorders and intoxications due to their virulence genes colonizing the gut (Schierack et al. 2006, Schierack et al. 2009, Herrero-Fresno et al. 2015). Commensal E. coli strains are members of the gastrointestinal flora of most mammals; they support digestion and provide defense against enteric pathogens (Schierack et al. 2006, Schierack et al. 2009, Herrero-Fresno et al. 2015). Importance of gut microbiota to swine health The gut microbiota encompasses trillions of microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract (Carding et al. 2015). The composition of the gut microbiota is constantly evolving and can be susceptible to both endogenous and exogenous modifications (Carding et al. 2015). The microbiota

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