Dna Contamination And Its Unique Property Of Being Inherited Only From The Mother

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The mtDNA are explicitly studied recently due to its unique property of being inherited only from the mother. Unlike the nuclear DNA, mtDNA does not follow the Mendelian laws. Studying the inheritance pattern of mtDNA from mother to offspring will give us a better insight about its role in mitochondria associated human diseases.
The origin of mitochondria can be explained by endosymbiotic theory which states that the α-proteobacteria was engulfed by an archaebacterial to become what is presently known as mitochondria. As a part of evolution, the mtDNA has almost lost its genetic identity though it continues to retain a small genome from its ancestors. The rest of the non-mitochondrial origin genome came from the horizontal gene transfer. However, there is a lot of debate over the inheritance patterns of mtDNA. In this article, the author explains the inheritance pattern of mtDNA with experimental proof and its isolation from mammalian cell line free of nuclear DNA contamination. The nuclear DNA contamination is due to the recruitment of nucleus derived tRNAs to the mitochondria causing redundancy in the tRNA forming codons. This will eventually lead to the loss of original functional mtDNA thereby increasing the mutational load in the cell.
To study the mtDNA transmission from mother to offspring, an experiment was conducted in which the mtDNA inheritance was studied in primary oocytes. They found that only a certain number of mtDNA were transferred to oocyte. On oocyte

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