This lab’s purpose was to find the person present at the scene of the crime in a group of suspects in a scenario. The experimenters did DNA fingerprinting to find the suspect that was there. To find the suspect, the experimenters did a gel electrophoresis to separate different sizes of DNA fragments. The question for the lab is, “Which suspect is the guilty when doing DNA fingerprinting?” The experimenters’ hypothesis is that the suspect who was at the crime scene will have DNA that closely matches the DNA found at the scene and the suspects that were not at the scene will have DNA that does not match the sample DNA. The sample wells are placed near the negative electrode because DNA is negatively charged, and the negatively charged electrode
A lot of people are interested in figuring out their genetic heritage. With that information they seek to figure out if their is a root cause to their health problems or just to see where their family was from based off of their DNA. Sequencing and analyzing DNA for individuals was not always possible. But as new methods were created, DNA analysis services were sold to people so they could have a deeper understanding about themselves, like how ones body is effected by caffeine.
In order to extract DNA from any living thing, we needed to first gather the materials. Then we began the experiment. Step 1, put in a blender 1/2 cup of split peas (100ml), 1/8 teaspoon table salt (less than 1ml), and 1 cup cold water (200ml). Next, we blended the materials on high for 15 seconds. This allowed the pea cells to separate from each other, so we now had a really thin pea-cell soup. Step 2, poured our thin pea-cell soup through a strainer into another container. Added 2 tablespoons of liquid detergent (about 30ml) and swirled to mix. We then let the mixture incubate for 7 minutes. Poured the mixture into test tubes containers, and filled each about 1/3 full. Step 3, added a pinch of meat tenderizer to each test tube and stirred gently to make sure we didn’t break up the DNA. Step 4, tilted our test tube and slowly poured rubbing alcohol (70-95% isopropyl or ethyl alcohol) into the tube down the side so that it forms a layer on top of the pea mixture. Poured until we had about the same amount of alcohol in the tube as pea mixture. Alcohol is less dense than water, so it floats on top. From there we looked for clumps of white stringy stuff where the water and alcohol layers meet. The white stringy stuff was tangled DNA molecules. Thus, we completed DNA extraction. As we performed the experiment we made no changes to the original protocol.
Activity 2: DNA Extraction Students will learn about the shape and function of DNA while extracting some from the cells of wheat germ.
Recent Uses of DNA Technology DNA, Deoxyribonucleic Acid, is the basic structure for all life, it is the blueprint, the instruction manual, on how to build a living organism. DNA is made up of four nitrogen bases, adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine which are connected by sugar-phosphate bonds. Through a process called Protein Synthesis, the nitrogen bases are the code for the creation of amino acids. Essentially, DNA makes amino acids, amino acids make proteins, proteins make organisms. This process has been taking place for much longer than scientists have been able to document. Those scientists are called geneticists and their field is genetics.
DNA in Forensic Science DNA is the genetic blueprint for life because it contains the instructions that oversee the development of an organism. Taking samples of DNA and analyzing them to determine if they come from the same individual is known as DNA profiling. Investigators gather items such as hair, saliva, semen and blood that could contain DNA from a crime scene. DNA profiling is also used in paternity testing, victim identification and evolution research. First, the collected DNA samples are isolated. Next, selected sequences from each DNA sample are replicated to produce a large sample of DNA fragments. Finally, the enlarged DNA samples are compared to other samples to determine whether the samples came from the same person or
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects different chemicals would have on DNA extracted from kiwi. These corrosive chemicals include: citric acid cleaner, methanol, bleach and water for the controlled sample. This was achieved as kiwis were soaked in the harsh chemicals and the controlled sample, DNA was then extracted and observed. After the DNA was removed, it was isolated and weighed in order to decide in which test was the most DNA damaged. The independent variables for this experiment were days the kiwi was soaking in and resting. While the dependant variable was the measure of DNA found in mass.
During DNA extraction and purification, various solutions were used at each stage to either isolate or purify the DNA completely living the cells and other debris behind. The function and stage where it was used shall be
In forensic science, biotechnology is used to match the biological material-DNA-to correctly identify suspects and victims. The DNA fingerprinting processes can help give evidence of guilt or innocence in a trial. It can link and eliminate suspects for certain crimes. DNA forensics are able to even identify and solve a crime that was made if it had been unknown. Many crimes are solved today due to the DNA biotechnology.
GENOMIC AND MITOCHONDRIAL DNA IN FORENSIC DENTISTRY The genomic DNA is found in the nucleus of each cell in the human body and represents a DNA source for most forensic applications. The teeth are an excellent source of genomic DNA because PCR analyses allow comparing the collected postmortem samples to known
Chloroform and alcohol (Ethanol) are two important chemicals for CTAB DNA extraction process. Chloroform is used in separating proteins and polysaccharides from nucleic acids in the tested cells. It is denser than water by having density of 1.49 g/cm3. After centrifuged the samples, chloroform and water will separate into two phases. The lower phase will be chloroform that contains protein and polysaccharides. Whilst, the upper phase contains the cells’ DNA. Ethanol is used to remove any excess salt by washing the pellet that formed in the tube. This separation process in crucial because it needs to get rid all the polysaccharides to ensure the amplifying process works
In essence, as the cancer responded to treatment, the same patterns and genetic changes were recorded in the blood samples as well. This provides “proof-of-principle” that monitoring tumor DNA in blood can accurately predict the following developments of
In addition, everyone has DNA and it is located within the nucleus of our cells throughout our bodies. For example blood, saliva, and hair can be used to trace our DNA. During the first step of the DNA extraction process cells get broke open in order to release DNA molecules into a solution. Additionally, during DNA testing the extraction has to be examined to ensure that it is human and not bacteria or something else. Furthermore, there is also a DNA amplification technique known as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), which makes millions of copies of a certain DNA sequence within a few hours. The PCR process is crucial because many times DNA is limited at a crime scene (Bureau of Criminal Apprehension,
* Denaturation * Annealing * Extension This process takes place in a thermal cycles, usually between 30 and 40 cycles. In the initial step, heat (usually hotter than 90 degrees Celsius) separates double-stranded DNA into
The process of DNA Typing has become more common which has allowed more resources to be readily available, while also being at a cheaper rate. DNA can now be privately found using individual kits instead of going to research facilities. Also, DNA can be sequenced for only a few thousand dollars versus a few billion dollars as it was just a few years ago. ("DNA and the Masses: The Science and Technology Behind Discovering Who You Really Are") During the DNA Typing process, one must first go through the method of DNA extraction. The first step of DNA extraction is to find a source of DNA, and the second step is to remove the sample of DNA from the cells. After this, the sample is deposited into a tube that contains measured chemicals. ("Hunter") The chemicals that are contained in the tube include a buffer, which keeps the DNA from falling apart, and other substances that are used to break down the cells and release the DNA into the buffer. If