Dna vs Rna

783 WordsJan 29, 20124 Pages
Comparison chart | DNA | RNA | Definition: | A nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms | RNA, single-stranded chain of alternating phosphate and ribose units with the bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil bonded to the ribose. RNA molecules are involved in protein synthesis and sometimes in the transmission of genetic information. | Job/Role: | Medium of long-term storage and transmission of genetic information | The main job of RNA is to transfer the genetic code need for the creation of proteins from the nucleus to the ribosome. this process prevents the DNA from having to leave the nucleus, so it stays safe. Without RNA, proteins could never…show more content…
Transcription is the beginning of the process that ultimately leads to the translation of the genetic code into a peptide or protein. Three types of RNA are transcribed from DNA: * Messenger RNA (mRNA) * Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) * Transfer RNA (tRNA) Messenger RNA is a copy of the genetic information that was transcribed from the DNA. This copy is brought to the ribosome and “decoded” by tRNA and rRNA. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is part of the structure of ribosomes, the cellular protein factories where peptides are built. Transfer RNA (tRNA) brings to the ribosome the amino acids that mRNA coded for. Translation Ribosomes (which contain rRNA) make proteins from the messages encoded in mRNA. Each three nucleotide group, called a codon, encodes one amino acid. This is the genetic code. In other words, the triplet code of genetic instructions for a polypeptide chain is ‘written’ in the DNA as a series of 3-nucleotide ‘words.’ These genetic instructions are brought to the ribosome by mRNA, decoded by rRNA, and tRNA brings the amino acid monomers that were coded for in the base triplet of mRNA. Amino acids are monomers that, when linked together with peptide bonds, ultimately become a protein molecule, the end product of
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