Dog Lysozymes Lab Report

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There are two major structures found in dog saliva that apply to this experiment: lysozymes and histatins. Lysozymes are enzymes that have antimicrobial capabilities. They are found in many organisms such as plants, birds, bacteria, mammals, and insects. Lysozymes were first found in the chicken egg by Laschtschenko in 1909. Many scientists have specifically tested its potential use as a natural antibiotic. Lysozymes work by hydrolyzing the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls. Because of this, these enzymes are more efficient when breaking down gram-positive bacteria. Histatins are the other main structure found in dog saliva. These antimicrobial peptides specifically target fungal cells in three ways. Histatins can target the mitochondria of a fungal cell by entering the cytoplasm at a receptor on the membrane, trigger cell death by interfering with actively respiring cells through activating the non-lytic loss of ATP, and disrupt the cell cycle. Histatins are found in the oral cavity and have grown to be able to control infection in this area after continued exposure to a variety of bacteria and fungi. These simple proteins were discovered by Helmerhorst and company in in 1997.…show more content…
Generally, it is used to treat bacterial infections such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and ear, lung, skin, and urinary tract infections. Ampicillin comes in three forms: capsule, liquid, and pediatric drops. Capsules should be kept at room temperature and not stored in bathrooms to avoid excessive heat and moisture. Ampicillin and penicillin are both beta-lactamase agents. This means they affect the formation of the bacterial cell wall, specifically the final step: binary fission. Ampicillin is different from penicillin because of an amino group. This amino group allows ampicillin to also be effective on gram-negative cell
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