Animal Disease Control Introduction “Some animal diseases can also infect animals of other species, and people. The government helps to combat outbreaks of these zoonotic diseases.” This is a quote from Government.ln, giving a little insight on how they begin controlling this problem. When a farmer had an animal that becomes sick they are able to treat the animal with antibiotics, or if they do not have the proper antibiotics they call a vet to treat. Disease that farmers need to notify the vets, so they can notify higher ups, about are: Mad Cow Disease, Foot and Mouth Disease, Q Fever, Parrot Fever, Swine Fever, Bird Flu. Depending on the type of the disease is how the treatment process will go and whether or not the animal needs to be separated from the herd or not.
The ability to produce more crops required a method to transport them to more people. This method was for people to clump closer together, which facilitated the spread of disease amongst communities. People migrated nearer to each other because they could receive a frequent supply of food. “The mere fact that agriculture encouraged people to clump together in crowded societies, many of which then carried on trade with other crowded societies, led to the spread of parasites and infectious disease” (65). Diamond argues that because agriculture brought people together in close proximity disease and parasites were able to spread more rapidly and frequently. Hunters and gatherers tended to spread out and keep to themselves. This ultimately eliminated the possibility of an epidemic sweeping through societies. For instance, “epidemics couldn’t take hold when populations were scattered in small bands that constantly shifted camp” (65). Among hunter-gatherer
They didn’t have the proper farmland and the same animals. Furthermore, this digressed the way their civilization spread and grew. Diamond researched and established that certain lands were blessed only due to their geographical location. The earliest civilization began in the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East. This land had rich soil and a variety of animals, which made the land promised and geographically lucky. As time passed people living in the area learned new ways to keep their civilization alive. The Fertile Crescent became known as the “Promised Land” and a way of survival was introduced as farming and the domestication of
During the age of exploration, travelers from Spain struck extreme luck with the discovery of large silver deposits in the Americas. Sparked by the desire to find a new trade route and to escape the disease of Europe, explorers set out and happened to find an untouched, resource rich land; the Americas. Throughout the period of 1450 CE to 1750 CE, silver largely changed the economies and trade in Europe and Asia both positively and negatively. While the discovery of silver by the Spanish in the Americas brought significant positive economic change in the form of wealth to the Spanish and Chinese governments, it also created negative economic changes in the Americas which led to slavery of the native peoples promoted by the desire to obtain
Aliki Daviotis Paper #2 December 2nd, 2017 Extending along the valley of Mexico, with Tenochtitlan as its capital; the Aztec Empire resided. The Aztecs had significant wealth from trading and heavy payments of tribute from the conquered natives. From the
The book, Germs, Guns, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, by Jared Diamond, shows how different cultures followed different courses of history. The book also looks at how Europe became the superpower it is and how it evolved faster than other cultures at the time. This is because some
The establishment of food production proved to be more fulfilling than hunting and gathering since it reduced the risk of starvation. Despite being provided with some of the advantages that came with transitioning to agriculture, many regions remained as hunter-gatherers. While some areas, such as the Fertile Crescent and Eurasia, had many advantageous plants and animals that could be domesticated, other areas, New Guinea, Eastern United States, and Mesoamerica, possessed limited availability. Some areas are simply not suited to agriculture of any kind, while others may support some crops that are suitable for domestication but not others. Likewise, while there were big animals living in several regions, those species were not suitable for domestication since they did not follow the six requirements, which involved being sufficiently obedient, humble to humans, cheap to feed, able to breed well in captivity, immune to diseases, able to grow rapidly (Diamond 1999, 169). On the other hand, in some areas, food production developed independently. However, only a few places developed food production without any outside influence, which included the Fertile Crescent in western Eurasia, China, the eastern United States, Mesoamerica, and New Guinea. In the Andes and Amazonians, and three areas of Africa, food production was also probably an independent development, but there are
Ever since Christopher Columbus sailed to the Americas in 1492, Europeans have sought to discover the continent and make their own establishments on it. England, France, Spain, and Netherland were among the leaders in creating settlements in the Americas, but each had their own ambitions and ways to deal with
This topic is discussed in Chapter Eleven, it outlines major diseases that killed out many civilizations and how a epidemic survives but still connecting to the idea of agriculture. A epidemic starts when it get exposed and everyone is quickly infected and until those would are left survive and become immune, then the disease dies out. This process helped Europeans infected other civilizations not immune to their germs who they eventually conquer.However, Europeans would have gotten these germs without agriculture. In farming societies, farmers would be surround by their own waste because they didn't have the need to move like hunters and gathers. This gave the opportunity for the disease to have only a short distance to travel until they infected a new person. Disease also traveled with domestic animals which interacted with humans providing another chance to spread the infection. The Europeans had all these aspects, to get germs and infect weaker civilization and to conquer them, right in their own environment. Another important factor of Europe’s superiority is their
(17:00) Gun powder had originally come from China and first used as a weapon by Arabs and over years Europeans made the guns lighter and more portable. Even if it took a long time to reload, the guns we have now would be a terrifying weapon for the Inca Empire, as they had never seen such a thing before. But the real power of the conquistadors was with the production of steel. Toledo had some of the best sword smiths in the world. People started working with metals in the Fertile Crescent 7000 years ago and because Europe is geographically close to the Fertile Crescent, Europeans inherited this metal technology (19:38). While Inca Empire were skilled to grow potatoes and corn, they had never heard of steel
Diamond's account has an interesting twist, though. Most epidemic diseases are zoonotic, that is, they are incubated in domestic animals. Crowding facilitates the spread of disease. Peoples who spent thousands of years living near each other and their animals developed resistance to many communicable diseases. Groups who weren't subject to these pressures did not develop the same resistance. When Europeans came to the Americas after centuries of urban life, their diseases decimated the indigenous populations. The guns and steel also facilitated the conquest, but Diamond thinks the germs were the key factor.
Having domesticated animals is a huge advantage for a civilization. Geographic location affects what animals are available in that location. If a civilization has animals that can be domesticated, they can be used as a tool, and that can speed up the development of a civilization. To domesticate animals civilizations need animals that are herbivores, large mammals with a quick growth rate, live in herds, have a good social structure, breed well, and a nice disposition. There are 148 species of animals, but only 14 have been domesticated because they don't meet the specifications. Eurasia had plenty of domesticated animals, far more than Papa New Guinea. Domesticated animals provide transportation, protein, and warmth from their hair. They can work and help with crops. When domesticated animals do work, people don't need to. When people don't have to work, they can become specialists so the civilization can develop and expand. Specialists are people that focus on other things than farming, like becoming a doctor or an inventor. The more specialists a civilization has the more jobs created. The more people that become specialists, the faster a civilization will develop. If a civilization has a surplus of food and a handful of domesticated animals, they don’t have to focus on finding food and farm work, they could experiment with their recourses and develop new inventions. The people of Papa New Guinea couldn't do that, so there became a bigger gap between them and Eurasia, it created more
Civilization would have developed differently without agriculture. With the hunter gathers they have to follow the food, and so could only support so many people before they had to split up to survive. Kind of like the Indians of America you need vast amount of land to be a hunter gather. With agriculture civilization was developed it brought the need for specialized skills or cities since everyone didn’t have to worry about food. When mass amounts of people could live it was called Civilization with it came the need for taxes, an army, and food storage on a massive level. Taxes where paid with food which was distributed to the mass, with hunter gathers the food could not have been distributed of the Egyptian level because they meat would
Secondly, a factor of the environment which assisted in the advancement of Eurasia was the immunity to diseases. With the domestication of animals, came several diseases. When raising livestock people interact with animals more than if they were hunting the animal. The animals have to be cleaned, fes and cooperated on a daily basis. The interaction between animals and humans, allows germs to evolve in order to spread onto a human host. Most lethal diseases come from animals or other living things. “(Think of AIDS, an explosively spreading human disease that appears to have evolved from a virus resident in wild African monkeys.)” (Diamond, pg. 197) Additionally, leprosy came from dogs, syphilis originated in sheep, and smallpox originally was
It is possible that a social hierarchy was created when such densely packed communities were created, as now human interaction became all the more important, as the relationships between neighbors, and social groups would most likely create tension in the situation. It was also during the time of the Early neolithic in which the first clues of plant domestication began to appear. Though it was the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period in which domesticated crops including wheat, barley, lentil, peas, and legumes were found. These domesticated grains showed an increase in size and durability . Animal domestication was quick to follow, as Sheep were found to be domesticated in Turkey, Iraw, and Iran, while the reduction in size of the animals, and the discovery of the animals outside their habitat became common finds. Finally, it was during the Late Neolithic period in which a reduction in the number of large villages across the Middle East began. We can see the shift toward a way of life focused on the grazing of domesticated animals, as villages began to shrink, and the population became once again scattered across the land. It was also during this period in which a decline in the role of hunting for subsistence became apparant, as well as Late Neolithic societies reliance on plants that were domesticated during the Early Neolithic periods. We can see from this that the origin of agriculture in Europe came from the usage of Middle Eastern