The term “Covert Action” brings with it a connotation of shadowy figures wrapped in secrecy and intrigue. It also brings with it a substantial amount of moral questions as to “what is right.” The use of covert action has been widely publicized since the early seventies, but trying to find out the truth to these events has been difficult to say the least. What is even more difficult, is historically recording these events into categories of successes or failures. These operations are difficult to dissect because of their secrecy and although events have been recorded, some facts simply aren’t apparent. This paper will seek to identify the complex issues associated with covert operations.
In a letter written by Admiral Stansfield Turner, Director of Central Intelligence Agency dated July 15, 1977, he disclosed a recent discovery of seven boxes of documents related to Project MKULTRA. The CIA tried to cover up the evidence that MKULTRA ever existed they sent Seven boxes to retired records in Washington
Despite great efforts, Hitler seemed to be an unbeatable force. This was the mindset which much of Europe unfortunately succumbed to during WW2. Churchill’s speech “So Few” was made to address this very mind set and dash its validity, but not before addressing the sound reasoning behind it. Churchill is able to use logic to explain the issue of Hitler’s army to his people, for one must first know his enemy before he is able to defeat him. He is then able to articulate the strategy by which they shall overcome the enemy. While presenting the
Even before the climactic World War II, Churchill’s mental war starts with the Indian Independence movement. Churchill was brusque about his opinion on the movement, knowingly showing his opposition to the public. “To Churchill, all Indians were the pedestal for a throne. He would have died to keep England free, but was against those who wanted India free.(Tondon, n.d.)” With this ornery still in the mind of the public and government officials, Churchill’s 1940 election was met with opposition. In Churchill and Orwell, “Peter Eckersley, a Tory MP, predicted that “Winston won’t last five months.”(Ricks, pg. 91)” The general public were critical of such a disposition leading the United Kingdom during a time struggle. Even with the public’s pessimistic prospect of him, Churchill’s resilience will become a favorable trait to exhibit in this psychological war.
D-Day Deception by Mary Kathryn Barbier and Operation Double Cross by Ben Macintyre are both books about Operation Fortitude, the colossal allied deception operation aimed at preventing Germany from finding out where the D-Day landings would take place. This paper will summarize both books and then discuss the differences between them and why they exist.
World War II was a war of many victories and losses. A battle for constant control of territories, that was ushered by greed and corruption. With this comes the persistent need to find an advantage over the enemy, and during this time Germany became the front runner in innovations and technology. This intelligence showed by the Germans had the allied forces in a scramble to help propel them on top of the battle again. In hopes of success, through desperation the United States had managed to put together a top-secret task force. However this was not the typical task force that the United States was know to specialize in, until the early 1940 's. This task force was hand selected to specialize in tricking the German forces, specifically in the art of Deception. Through the use of these technologies given to them, these brave soldiers used their skills in sonic, radio, and visual deception, to help lead the allied forces to victory. Later called the Ghost Army of the War, these American 's were essential in deceiving the German forces.
Herbert Yardley’s establishment of the Cipher Bureau, or the “American Black Chamber,” was one of the first cryptologic organizations established by the US military and is the foundation for one the largest intelligence agencies in the US – the NSA. Yardley’s successes in the early twentieth century, like The Washington Naval Arms Limitation Treaty of 1922, proved the importance of code breaking and the need for a cryptologic organization (Lowenthal, 2000a). However, Yardley’s American Black Chamber disbanded in 1929 due to Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson’s
I would say I have successfully answered this question and the research shows that the contributions made by these secret agents was very significant and even changed the course of the war in some cases. I came across stories of spies who risked their lives out in the field and died at the hands of the enemy, never leaking a single secret. It also showed the contributions of the women behind the desk working endlessly decoding and encrypting messages to send to those on enemy lines. It showed spies who were sent into the heart of enemy territory and put in very dangerous situations to find out information that just might save many Allied lives. All of these secret agents gave everything they had for the sake of this war yet given very little credit for it. This was especially seen in the cases of Canadian spies, as there were very few documents that spoke of their contributions, not even on the government websites. This might be because there are no stories to tell, maybe there was very little contributed by Canadian spies. There are very few stories about Canadian spies, but the most well- known one is about Igor Gouzenko. This is not saying much as Igor Gouzenko ended up becoming a double agent who was sending messages back to Germany. Though another cause might be the Official Secrets Act which prevents the sharing of the
Philby’s extensive time in Britain had made him a valuable asset to the Soviets as his overview of spy operations and personnel’s in Europe contributed greatly to the Soviet’s knowledge of British intelligence. Never being found guilty as the
Conspiracy is a historical reenactment of the Wannsee Conference that convened outside Berlin in January of 1942. Fifteen of Hitler’s top officials from the SS and Nazi party held a clandestine meeting to lay the groundwork for what was referred to as the “Final Solution of the Jewish Question”. Among those present were: Reinhard Heydrich - Heinrich Himmler’s right hand man in the SS, Heinrich Muller – Chief of the Gestapo, Martin Luther – Foreign Ministry’s liaison to the SS, Gerhard Klopfer – lawyer from the Nazi Party Chancellery, Friedrich Wilhelm Kritzinge - Deputy head of the Reich Chancellery, Wilhem Stuckart – lawyer representing the Interior Ministry and the co-author of the Anti-Semitic Nuremburg laws.
and left Britain alone in the time of war, and primed the British people for what was to come. "When we see the originality of malice, the ingenuity of aggression, which our enemy displays, we may certainly prepare ourselves for every kind of novel stratagem and every kind of brutal and treacherous maneuver," (Churchill). Churchill gave his enemy lots of credit. They were, after all, very good at the art of war, deception,
In a total war, the home front must be entirely united to continue to fight and fund a war effort, and Churchill appeals to unity and patriotism. He asks the people of Britain to give what Churchill himself will be offering ‘“blood, toil, tears, and sweat”’ (32). If the Prime Minister can give his everything to fight in the war, it encourages the audience to want to participate as well. Churchill continues to appeal to unity through his use of words like ‘we’ and ‘our’ to unite the country with the government as they fight for one cause. By creating a ‘team’, they can effectively rally the audience into action. The public opinion may believe that the Germans are unstoppable, but Winston’s emotionally charged words that with total effort and war from all fronts with the support of God, the feat can be achieved (35). Because of the war, the Prime Minister conveys the necessity for “victory; victory at all costs; victory in spirt of all terror, victory, however long and hard the road may be; for without victory, there is no survival” (38-40). By bringing the risk of destruction of the country should they fail, it further persuades the audience to want to give their all so they can win the war. After riling up the crowd with the emotionally charged pathos arguments, Churchill closes with a final remark: ‘“Come then, let us go
The year was 1940; the world’s second great World War was in full swing, with Britain and Germany at the forefront. The fall of Britain’s closest ally, France, stunned the British Empire and threw it into disarray. Through the chaos, Winston Churchill emerged. Churchill would be an inspiring leader who was able to rally the entire nation in times of hardship. Through his leadership, the “British Bulldog” would face the Axis powers and come out victorious, as well as become a public hero for the British people. Yet, immediately after the war, Churchill did not return to the prime minister seat because of a shocking defeat in his re-election, despite his immense reputation he gained from the war. Though lauded by the British population for his prowess as a wartime leader, Churchill’s conservative politics were out of touch with a population ready for post-war relief and led to his defeat in the 1945 election.