Down Syndrome : A Genetic Condition

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Down syndrome is named after Dr. J.L. Down, who first discovered and studied the condition. It is part of a large number of disabilities known as intellectual disabilities. Down syndrome is present at birth and individuals are usually diagnosed during pregnancy or shortly after birth. There are three types of Down syndrome. The most common of these involves an extra number 21 chromosome, which gives the individual 47 instead of 46 total chromosomes. A chromosome breaking and then reattaching to another chromosome characterizes translocation, which is the second type of Down syndrome. The third type, nondisjunction occurs when a pair of chromosomes fail to separate properly during nuclear division. Individuals with this disability usually…show more content…
Though not all children with Down syndrome have the same features, some of the more common features are small head , short neck , flattened facial features, protruding tongue, unusually small ears, poor muscle tone, relatively short fingers and small hands and feet and short height just to name a few. In an article by Cynthia L. Lewis, she tells the story of Jimmy. “Red faced Jimmy struggled to walk around the gym breathing heavily, he tried to complete the first lap all the while complaining and stopping to rest. But his gym teacher kept urging him to finish without, stopping, Jimmy, who has Down syndrome, finally flopped to the floor yelling, “No, I will not go! Afraid of a problem, the teacher turned to the school physical therapist, who monitored Jimmy’s heart during the exercise. The result was troubling the teenager’s heart rate was 165 because people with Down syndrome only have a maximum heart rate of 170 to 175, Jimmy was exercising at 95 percent of his maximum heart rate capacity. People with Down syndrome have unique characteristics that make one size fits all exercise regimen more harmful than good, BUT physical activity can be beneficial to individuals who have Down syndrome. While individuals with Down syndrome do generally have some physical limitations they can for the most part participate in most forms of physical activity that individuals without the disability can. The physical activity guidelines for
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