Down Syndrome Essay

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Down Syndrome Down's Syndrome, it is one of the most frequently occurring chromosomal abnormalities found in humans effecting people of all ages, races and economic levels. It is a chromosomal anomaly in cell development that results in a person being born with forty-seven chromosomes instead of the normal forty-six chromosomes. People with Down syndrome may have mild to severe learning disabilities and physical symptoms, which include a small skull, extra folds of skin under the eyes, and a protruding tongue. Roughly one out of every one thousand children born making it the most common genetic disorder. Down syndrome affects over 350,000 people, in the United States alone. Down syndrome has plagued the human race…show more content…
The human body is made of cells. All of these cells contain a center, called a nucleus, in which genetic code of each human being is stored. This genetic material, known as genes, carries the codes responsible for all our inherited characteristics from the mother and the father. Genes are grouped along rod-like structures called chromosomes. Normally, the nucleus of each cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, half of which are inherited from each parent. In Down syndrome, however, the cells usually contain not 46, but 47 chromosomes. The extra chromosome, being a number 21. This excess genetic material, in the form of additional genes along the 21st chromosome, results in Down syndrome. Because 95 percent of all cases of Down syndrome occur because there are three copies of the 21st chromosome, it is often referred to as "trisomy 21." Chromosomes may be studied by examining blood or tissue cells. Individual chromosomes are identified, stained and numbered from largest to smallest. The visual display of the chromosomes is known as a karyotype. Down syndrome is usually caused by an error in cell division called non-disjunction. However, two other minor types of chromosomal abnormalities, mosaicism and translocation, are also causes of Down syndrome. Regardless of the type of Down syndrome that a person may have, all people with Down syndrome have an extra, critical portion of the number

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